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Header: Australian Impressionism

INSIGHTS

Image above:
Louis BUVELOT

born Switzerland 1814,
Summer afternoon, Templestowe (detail) 1866
oil on canvas
76.6 x 118.9 cm
Purchased, 1869
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

Introduction

The exhibition Australian Impressionism focuses on the years between 1883 and 1895, during which time Tom Roberts, Frederick McCubbin, Arthur Streeton, Charles Conder and Jane Sutherland played a key role in the development of Impressionism in Australia. The artists’ ideas and work were nurtured by the lively artistic climate of Melbourne during the 1880s and reflected a range of artistic influences, from traditional academic art to the more progressive international art movements of plein-air painting, Aestheticism and Symbolism.

image: decorative motif

Training and education

All the artists represented in Australian Impressionism received at least some of their art training at the National Gallery School in Melbourne, which opened in 1870.

 

Tuition at the school varied over the years, according to the interests of different teachers. Generally, however, classes followed the model of the European art academies. Students commenced their studies in the School of Design where they learnt the fundamentals of drawing, including outline drawing and tonal modeling of form. In the process they progressed from drawing plaster casts of antique sculptures to drawing from the human figure.

 

The School of Painting taught traditional painting skills. These included compositional skills and the academic technique of building up a painting in many layers, starting with thin paint and dark tones, and finishing with thicker paint and lighter tones on the surface. Some teachers also encouraged their students to make oil sketches en plein air (see Plein–air painting – a fresh approach, below).

 

McCubbin enrolled at the National Gallery School in 1871 and attended classes for fifteen years. He was appointed drawing master in 1886, a position he held until his death in 1917. His students included Streeton and Conder, who attended evening classes at the school, and Sutherland, a contemporary of Mc Cubbin’s, who had a sustained involvement with the school as a student between 1871–1886. Roberts began attending classes at the school in 1874. He later deepened his understanding of traditional academic art practice when he enrolled at the Royal Academy School in London in 1881.

 

The traditional art training offered by the National Gallery School was particularly important for Roberts and McCubbin. The ambitious narrative and figure compositions painted by these artists, including On the wallaby track 1896 by McCubbin and Shearing the rams 1890 by Roberts, reflect the skills the artists developed in figure drawing, composition and modelling of form.

 

Conder began his art career in Sydney in the 1880s. His early art tuition included night classes at the Art Society of New South Wales where he was taught by A.J. Daplyn (see below) who was actively involved in the plein-air painting movement in Melbourne and Sydney.

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International art and artists in Australia

Image: George Folingsby, Kitchen of castle of Hohenaschau (1860s)

G. F. Folingsby
Irish 1828–91, worked in Germany
1852–79, Australia 1879–91
Kitchen of castle of Hohenaschau (1860s)
oil on canvas on cardboard
40.4 x 38.0 cm
Purchased, 1891
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

During the 1870s and 1880s, immigrant artists who had trained and worked in Europe brought first-hand experience of international art, including the plein–air movement, to Australia. Through their work and teaching they made an important contribution to the lively artistic climate that nurtured the development of Impressionism in Australia.

 

George Frederick Folingsby (1828–91) was born in Ireland and trained in academic painting methods in Germany and France before arriving in Australia in 1879. He was appointed Master of the School of Painting at the National Gallery School in 1882, where he became a popular teacher. Alongside traditional academic painting and drawing skills he encouraged narrative figure painting and everyday subjects.

 

The Swiss artist Abram Louis Buvelot (1814–88) studied in Switzerland and Paris before arriving in Australia in 1865. Like the artists of the Barbizon School who strongly influenced his work, he worked en plein air, developing a great familiarity with particular landscapes, before finishing his work in the studio. He taught at the Carlton School of Design and his work was widely exhibited and admired in Melbourne between 1866–82. Summer afternoon, Templestowe, 1866 was among the first Australian works purchased by the National Gallery of Victoria.

 

Image: Louis Buvelot, Summer afternoon 1866

Louis Buvelot
born Switzerland 1814,
Summer afternoon, Templestowe 1866
oil on canvas
76.6 x 118.9 cm
Purchased, 1869
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

Image: Julian Ashton, Evening, Merri Creek 1882

Julian Ashton
Australian 1851 – 1942
Evening, Merri Creek 1882
oil on canvas
Gift of Howard Ashton 1942
Art Gallery of New South Wales


English-born Julian Ashton (1851–1942) attended art schools in England and Paris before arriving in Melbourne in 1878, and then moving to Sydney in 1883. In both cities he actively encouraged local artists to work en plein air. From 1884 he often painted on the Hawkesbury River with a group that included Daplyn, Conder and Nerli (see below). He is acknowledged as an important teacher and advocate for Australian art.

 

 


Like his close colleague Julian Ashton, A. J. Daplyn (1844–1926) was born in England and studied in France. After arriving in Melbourne in 1882 he exhibited paintings made at Fontainebleau, the favoured locale of the artists of the Barbizon School plein-air painters. He later moved to Sydney where he taught and continued to work en plein-air. He wrote a book Landscape Painting from Nature in Australia, which was published in 1902.

 


Italian born and educated Girolamo Pieri Ballati Nerli (1860–1926) arrived in Australia in 1885. He had a traditional academic art education in Europe but was influenced by the more progressive painters of the day, including the group who pioneered plein-air painting in Italy. This group became known as the ‘Macchiaioli’ because of the spots (macchie) of bright colour in their work. In Melbourne Nerli shared premises with Arthur Loureiro (see below) before moving to Sydney in 1886, where he was closely associated with Julian Ashton and his circle.

 

The Portuguese artist Arthur Jose De Souza Loureiro (1853–1932) ,who arrived in Melbourne in 1885, studied art in Europe, including Paris, where he exhibited annually at the Salon exhibitions of 1880–82. He was actively involved in the plein-air movement in Europe and Australia but also made a significant number of works that reflect an interest in Allegorical painting and Symbolism.

Image: Girolamo NERLI, Street scene on a rainy night c.189

Girolamo NERLI
born Italy 1860, arrived Australia 1885,
died Italy 1926
Street scene on a rainy night c.1890
oil on composition board
31.0 x 23.2 cm
Purchased, 1951
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

Image: Arthur Loureiro, An autumn morning 1893

Arthur Loureiro
An autumn morning 1893
oil on canvas on composition board
72.2 x 102.6 cm
The Joseph Brown Collection.
Presented through the NGV Foundation by
Dr Joseph Brown AO OBE,
Honorary Life Benefactor, 2004


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An Australian artist abroad – Tom Roberts

Roberts spent the years between 1881 and 1885 abroad. While based in London he studied at the Royal Academy School, before traveling to Spain, France and Italy, where he was inspired by the work of a range of artists. His experiences overseas, and his enthusiasm for what he had seen, had an important influence on his own work and the development of Impressionism in Australia.

 

One of Roberts’s travelling companions on a walking tour of Spain in 1883 was the Australian artist John Russell (1859–1930). Russell eventually settled in France and became a friend of several of the French Impressionists, including Vincent van Gogh (1853–90) and Claude Monet (1840–1926). He developed an Impressionist style strongly influenced by his association with these artists, and is the most direct link between Australian art and the French Impressionism of Monet and his colleagues. Roberts himself had limited contact with French Impressionism while in Europe.

 

In Spain Roberts looked for inspiration for Spanish–themed paintings, which were very popular in the nineteenth century. He also studied the work of the old masters, Bartolomé Estaban Murillo (1617–82) and Diego Rodriquez de Silva Velázquez (1599–1660). Both artists were widely admired by the new generation of artists, including Roberts, for their naturalistic style, and Velázquez for his broad painterly brushstrokes and contrasts of tone.

 

Image: Tom Roberts, (A Moorish doorway) 1883

Tom Roberts
(A Moorish doorway) 1883
oil on canvas
48.3 x 33.3 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
The Joseph Brown Collection.
Presented through the NGV Foundation
by Dr Joseph Brown, AO, OBE,
Honorary Life Benefactor, 2004

image:Ramón Casas, Tom Roberts 1883

Ramón Casas
Tom Roberts 1883
oil on canvas on wood panel
32.7 x 24.5 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Marie Therese McVeigh Bequest, 2005

An encounter in Spain with two young Spanish art students, Laureâ Barrau (1863–1957) and Ramón Casas (1866–1932 ), who had been studying in Paris in the studios of Jean Leon Gérôme (1824–1904) and Carolus–Duran (1837–1918), proved significant for Roberts. Roberts was greatly impressed by the direct style of painting practiced by the young artists – evident in the portrait of Roberts, which Casas completed in a single sitting. Casas also introduced Roberts to Gérôme’s idea that ‘the first thing to look for’ in painting was ‘the general impression of colour’ – a concept that was to later underpin the famous 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition that Roberts was instrumental in organising.

 

Among the contemporary artists who most interested Roberts while he was abroad were those associated with Naturalism, such as the French artist Jules Bastien–Lepage (see below). Roberts also became familiar with the work of many of the followers of Bastien–Lepage, including the artists of the Newlyn School who painted en plein air around Cornwall in England.

 

In London the work of the London–based American painter James Mc Neill Whistler (see ‘Aesthetic movement’ below) deeply impressed Roberts. Roberts probably saw Whistler’s famous ‘Notes’ – ‘Harmonies’ – ‘Nocturnes’ exhibition, which was one of the cultural events of the year in London in 1884.

image: decorative motif

Plein-air painting – a fresh approach

Image: John Constable, Clouds 1822

John Constable
English 1776–1837
Clouds 1822
oil on paper on cardboard
30.0 x 48.8 cm
Felton Bequest, 1938
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

image: Camille COROT, Sketch at Scheveningen (1854)

Camille Corot
French (1796–1875)
Sketch at Scheveningen (1854)
oil on canvas
18.1 x 30.1 cm
Felton Bequest, 1906
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne


 

En plein air is a French term meaning ‘in the open air’. It is used to describe the practice of working out of doors, rather than in the studio.

 

The practice of making oil sketches en plein air extends back at least to Claude Lorrain in the seventeenth century, but it became more widespread in the nineteenth century. At this time, concurrent with the fashion for pursuing leisure in the countryside, many artists began to make small, rapidly executed paintings en plein air to record transient light and colour effects in the landscape. Well-known artists who adopted this practice include John Constable (1776–1837), who worked in the Suffolk countryside in England, and the artists of the Barbizon School, including Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796–1875), who worked in the rural countryside in the south of France. The plein-air oil sketches made by these artists were regarded as prepratory work for larger scale, more highly finished paintings made in the studio. It was not until the later nineteenth century that oil sketches made en plein air were valued and exhibited as finished paintings in their own right.

 

Traditional forms of landscape painting tended to be characterised by dramatic subject matter and views incorporating historical or mythological references, formally structured compositions clearly defined forms and detail, and a smooth, highly finished paint surface. By contrast, the plein-air landscape painting is often associated with a ‘truth to nature’ doctrine, and tends to focus on intimate views and everyday scenes. The subject matter, including atmospheric effects, is often described in broad areas of colour and tone, using rapid, obvious brushstrokes that give the painting a fresh, informal quality.

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Plein-air painting – an international movement

Plein-air painting became one of the most important movements in western art in the nineteenth century. During the 1870s and 1880s, progressive art studios in Paris, such as at Cormon’s and Julian’s, attracted students from around the world, and played an important role in encouraging the practice of working en plein air. Important artists’ colonies for plein-air painting were established outside Paris and at St Ives and Newlyn in England, Glasgow in Scotland and in several places in South America.

 

In Australia there was widespread knowledge of plein-air practice by the early 1880s. Working en plein air was part of the practice of many colonial artists, and later immigrant artists who had been involved in the plein-air movement in Europe further encouraged the practice (see above). The plein-air movement gained momentum in Melbourne after Roberts returned from Europe and set up an artists’ camp for painting en plein air at Box Hill, outside the city. Roberts and his colleagues were also associated with a number of other significant sites for plein-air painting in Melbourne and Sydney during the 1880s and 1890s

 

The work of artists associated with the plein-air movement around the world in the later nineteenth century, including those in Australia, was integral to the development of Impressionism internationally

 

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Impressionism – an issue of style and terminology

Image: Claude Monet, Vètheuil 1879

Claude Monet
French 1840–1926
Vètheuil 1879
oil on canvas
60.0 x 81.0 cm
Felton Bequest, 1937
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia

During the nineteenth century, the term ‘Impressionism’ was widely used by critics, artists and others to describe the fresh painterly style and informal sketch-like qualities found in the work of a growing number of artists, including most plein-air painters. Different manifestations of Impressionism emerged in many parts of the western world in the late nineteenth century, including England, America, Italy and Australia.

 

Today, however, the term Impressionism is often specifically associated with a group of artists, which included Monet, who worked in and around Paris in the 1860s and 1870s. The style of painting pioneered by this group, and typified by artists such as Monet, was dubbed Impressionism by critics because of the bold obvious brushstrokes and lack of clearly defined form in the work of many of these artists. French Impressionism, however, is also commonly associated with the use of bright chromatic colour and broken brushwork that make this form of Impressionism quite distinct from Impressionism as it was more widely practiced and understood in the nineteenth century.

 

The majority of artists in the nineteenth century working in an impressionist style, including those in Australia, maintained a strong interest in Naturalism.

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Naturalism

During the nineteenth century, a growing interest in Naturalism revolutionised European art. Naturalism led artists to reject the idealised and romanticised historical, mythological and religious subject matter that had traditionally been favoured in art. Instead, artists took their subjects from everyday life and sought to faithfully represent natural appearances. Many artists developed a particular interest in rural life and themes, including subjects that highlighted regional customs and industries that were slowly disappearing.

 

Image: Claude Monet, Vètheuil 1879

Jules Bastien-Lepage
French 1848–1884
October 1878
oil on canvas
180.7 x 196.0 cm
Felton Bequest, 1928
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia

The extremes of colour and technique associated with French Impressionist paintings did not interest or suit artists associated with Naturalism. However, many of these artists worked en plein air, using an impressionist technique to create a faithful record of colour and light effects and local character. Jules Bastien-Lepage (1848–84) was the leading exponent of Naturalism. In his work, such as October, 1878, he blended a contemporary approach to painting (everyday subject matter and landscapes painted en plein air in an Impressionist style) with aspects of traditional academic art practice (figures painted with clear, firm outline and strongly modelled form). This blending of styles treated everyday subject matter, such as the work of the potato harvesters in October, with the dignity and nobility traditionally reserved for ‘serious’ history painting.

 

Naturalism was regarded as the fashionable and progressive art when Roberts was in Europe, and Roberts greatly admired the work of Bastien-Lepage. The influence of Bastien-Lepage and Naturalism is clearly evident in the large-scale figure compositions focusing on rural life and labour made by Roberts and McCubbin , including A bush burial, 1890 by McCubbin, and Shearing the rams, 1890 by Roberts.

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Australian Impressionism

Charles Conder
Impressionists’ camp 1889
oil on paper on cardboard
13.9 x 24.0 cm
National Gallery of Australia,
Canberra
Gift of Mr and Mrs Fred
Williams and family, 1979


 

The Australian Impressionists had some awareness of the work of Monet and his circle, but their interest in this form of Impressionism was limited. Later in life McCubbin did adopt a higher keyed colour palette and used allover broken brushwork that reflected some affinity with French Impressionism, but during the 1880s and 1890s the Australian artists maintained a strong interest in the naturalistic representation of subject matter. In part, this was because of their commitment to creating a distinctly Australian art that reflected local colour and character.

 

While their work may have had limited parallels with French Impressionism, Roberts, Streeton, Conder, McCubbin and Sutherland certainly identified with the Impressionist style as it was more generally understood and practiced in the nineteenth century. The artists’ interest in Impressionism as a new and exciting style of painting was clearly manifest in 1889 at the famous 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition at Buxton’s Rooms . The exhibition title, the preface to the small catalogue, the titles of two paintings by Conder and even the many press commentaries that preceded and followed the exhibition, included many references to ‘Impressionism’.

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Aestheticism

The Aesthetic movement flourished in England in the 1870s and 80s. Central to Aestheticism was a belief in ‘art for art’s sake’. The arts, including painting, music and poetry, were seen as closely related and their role was to provide sensual pleasure and beauty. In Aesthetic art and literature, creating an evocative poetic mood and exploring themes such as the transience of beauty was considered more important than realistic description, narrative content or moral messages.

 

The artist most strongly associated with Aestheticism is the London-based American James McNeill Whistler (1834–1903). He developed a unique form of Impressionism based on harmonious and evocative arrangements of broad areas of colour and tone. He is well-known for both his portraits and his impressions of London, which include many nocturnal scenes characterised by poetic atmospheric and light effects. The compositions of Whistler’s paintings frequently reflect the influence of Japanese art, which was widely admired among those interested in Aestheticism. The titles of his works often allude to music, focusing attention on abstract qualities, such as harmony and beauty, which are also found in music.

 

Roberts became familiar with Whistler’s work while he was living in London (see below), but it was known to other Australian artists through etchings and reproductions. A painting by Whistler was included in the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, and later exhibited at Fletcher’s rooms in the city.

 

Image: James Abbott McNeill Whistler,Nocturne: Blue and Gold - Old Battersea Bridge 1872-5

James Abbott McNeill Whistler
English 1834-1903
Nocturne: Blue and
Gold - Old Battersea Bridge

c. 1872-5
Oil on canvas
frame: 922 x 760 x 83 mm
Tate, London
Presented by The Art Fund 1905

Image: James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Harmony in Grey and Green: Miss Cicely Alexander 1872–4

James Abbott McNeill Whistler
English 1834-1903
Harmony in Grey and Green:
Miss Cicely Alexander
1872–4
Oil on canvas
Tate, London


The influence of Whistler and Aestheticism was clearly evident in many of the paintings in the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition, and in the presentation of the exhibition. Portraits such as Blue eyes and brown, 1887 by Roberts suggest the influence of Whistler in composition, painterly technique, tonal contrasts and in decorative details borrowed from Japanese art. The musical and literary references in the titles and subjects of paintings by the Australian artists, such as Allegro Con Brio, Bourke St. W., 1886 by Roberts, and Still glides the stream, and shall for ever glide, 1890 by Streeton, also reflect an Aesthetic sensibility.

 

The Aesthetic movement was embraced by the middle classes and was strongly associated with ‘refined taste’ in nineteenth-century society. It had a significant influence on fashion, including interiors. In contrast to traditional Victorian era interiors, which often featured formal highly polished wooden furniture and heavy drapery, Aesthetic interiors were elegantly simple and often included elements of ‘oriental’ art and design, especially Japanese art and artifacts, such as lanterns, screens and fans. Cane furniture, ‘Liberty’ silks and peacock feathers were also popular in Aesthetic interiors.

 

Image: Tom Roberts, Blue eyes and brown (1887, dated 1888)

Tom Roberts
Blue eyes and brown
(1887, dated 1888)
oil on canvas
(126.8 x 76.0 cm)
National Gallery of Victoria,
Melbourne
Purchased, 1960

Image: Tom Roberts, Mrs L. A. Abrahams 1888

Tom Roberts
Mrs L. A. Abrahams 1888
oil on canvas
41.0 x 36.0 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased, 1946

 


The portrait Mrs L. Abrahams, 1888 by Roberts, provides a glimpse of the Aesthetic-style décor of Robert’s studio in Grosvenor Chambers. An Aesthetic décor was also a feature of the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition held at Buxton’s Rooms.

 

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Allegory and Symbolism

In allegorical art the content of an artwork stands for an abstract idea or concept. Although Australian Impressionism is often associated with Naturalism, Conder and Streeton both made a number of allegorical paintings. Conder’s interest in allegory is clearly evident in the cover he designed for the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition. The unraveling of bindings from around the figure of a young woman in this design is an allegory for art being released from convention. Details such as the blossom, the sun, the extinguished torch and the dragonfly are allegories for the fleeting nature of beauty and life.

 

In Mirage, c. 1889 by Conder, the figure of a young woman appears as an allegory for bushfire. This figure has been compared to that in Truth, by the French painter Jules Lefebvre (1836–1911), which was exhibited at the Paris Salon exhibition in 1870. Lefebvre’s work had become well known in Melbourne following the exhibition of his painting Chloe, 1875 at the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, and at the National Gallery of Victoria in 1883.

 

Image: Charles Conder, Mirage (c.1889)

Charles Conder
Mirage (c.1889)
watercolour
19.2 x 12.8 cm irreg.
(image); 20.0 x 13.3 cm (sheet)
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased, 1976

Image: Jules Lefebvre, Truth 1836–1911

Jules Lefebvre
Truth 1870
Musée d'Orsay, Paris


 

The destructive power of the women represented in paintings, such as Mirage and Spirit of the drought, 1895 by Streeton, have also been linked to the femme fatale (deadly woman) figures that were a common theme in the work of the artist and writers associated with the Symbolist movement of the 1880s and 1890s. Symbolist art and literature drew inspiration from dreams, fantasies, poems and ideas, rather than reality.

 

Image: Arthur Streeton, Spirit of the drought (c.1895)

Arthur Streeton
Spirit of the drought (c.1895)
oil on wood panel
34.7 x 37.2 cm
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
Joseph Brown Fund, 1983

Image: Arthur Loureiro, The Spirit of the New Moon 1888

Arthur Loureiro
Portugal 1853–1932,
lived in Australia 1884–1904
The Spirit of the New Moon 1888
oil on canvas
168.1 x 136.4 cm
Purchased, 2003
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne


It is difficult to ascertain what direct contact Australian artists had with European Symbolist art and literature in the 1880s. However, the immigrant artist Arthur Loureiro (see above) may have helped inspire interest in allegorical and symbolist themes. He had exhibited at the Paris Salon and painted allegorical subjects including The spirit of the new moon, 1888. He may also have developed some insight into Symbolism through his wife’s sister who lived in Paris and had some involvement with the movement.


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References and Further Reading

  • Broude, N,(ed.) 1990, World Impressionism: The International Movement, 1860– 1920, Harry N. Abrams Inc., New York.
  • Clark, J & Whitelaw, B 1986, Golden Summers – Heidelberg and beyond, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Gott, T 2007, ‘Gently I wave the visible worlds away’: Charles Conder, Arthur Streeton and the ‘Problem Children’, in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Lane, T 2007, ‘Australian Impressionism – Introduction’, in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Lane, T 2007, ‘The 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition – The Challenge of the Sketch’, in Lane, T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • McQueen, H 2007, ‘A Golden Age: Tom Roberts and the Arts of Spain’, in Lane, T(ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Topliss, H 1984, The Artist’s Camps: Plein–air painting in Melbourne 1885– 1898, Monash University Gallery, Clayton.
  • Vaughan, G 2007, ‘Some reflections on defining Australian Impressionism’,in Lane, T(ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
AARDVARK
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ANTELOPE
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