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Header: Australian Impressionism

INSIGHTS

Image above:
Arthur Streeton

The three liners (detail) 1893
oil on wood panel
13.6 x 69.8 cm
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
Gift of S. H. Ervin, 1962

Introduction

Image: Melbourne Suburban rail map, in The artists’ camp

Adapted from the Map of Melbourne Railway,
1880-1895 in Australian Economic Review
Vol.X and XI, 1970-71, p.176

The artists favoured certain sites for their open-air painting expeditions. Some of them were known as ‘camps’ because the artists pitched their tents in the bush so that they could paint over a few days. Not all of the artists painted at all of the sites. Most of them were located on the fringes of the city of Melbourne or close to Sydney, and were readily accessible on the railway system that was extended in the early 1880s. The map below shows the Melbourne rail network as it existed in the 1880s.

image: decorative motif

Box Hill

The natural bush land on David Houston’s property at Box Hill was the site of the artists’ first plein-air camp. During 1885 and 1886, this was the favoured painting site for Fred McCubbin, Tom Roberts and another artist, Louis Abrahams. It is thought that Jane Sutherland made day trips to the camp. The railway line opened in 1882 made Box Hill easily accessible to the city-based artists. The site, only three quarters of a mile from the Box Hill railway station at the bottom of what is now Foch Street, was described by a visitor, Mme Nancy Elmhurst Goode:

 

In the vicinity of the Homestead belonging to the Houstons was a patch of wild bush, tall young saplings with the sun glistening on their leaves and streamers of bark swaying, groups of tea–tree, dogwood and tall dry grasses. A fire was lighted and we were invited to share an alfresco lunch, The Don (Abrahams) earnestly frying eggs on a piece of tin, the Prof (McCubbin) busy with billy tea, and the Bulldog (Roberts) joyously cutting bread and butter and taking full command…

image: decorative motif

 

Image: Frederick McCubbin,  Lost, 1886

Frederick McCubbin
Lost
1886
oil on canvas
115.8 x 73.9 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

Tom Roberts’s The Artists’ Camp, c.1886, shows McCubbin drinking his billy tea while Abrahams grills chops over a fire of gum twigs. Roberts set up his easel nearby to capture his impression of the scene ‘on the spot’. Roberts worked quickly, applying broad areas of colour to the canvas, to record the scene before the light faded. Over the areas of green, russet and soft browns describing the grass, he has brushed in the saplings and clumps of grass in more detail. The ‘intimate’, close focus of Roberts’s painting (we can’t see the tops of the trees), and the relaxed atmosphere, conveys the sense that this generation of painters felt that they ‘belonged’ in the Australian bush.

 

McCubbin’s direct experience of the bush at Box Hill is evident in his observation of the bark peeling from the trunk of the foreground eucalypt, the dry grass, twiggy saplings and the blue-grey palette of his painting, Lost, 1886. McCubbin often liked to tell a story in his paintings, and this work refers to the theme of the lost child, a theme that featured in literature and the popular press at the time, inspired by actual cases of children becoming lost in the Australian bush. Not long before McCubbin painted Lost, a young girl, Clara Crosbie, was found alive after three weeks lost in the bush near Lilydale.

 


Image: Jane Sutherland,  Obstruction, Box Hill (1887)

Jane Sutherland
Obstruction, Box Hill (1887)
41.3 x 31.1 cm
Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, Victoria
L. J. Wilson Bequest Fund, 1976

Jane Sutherland’s Obstruction, 1887, was probably painted on one of her visits to the camp at Box Hill. The little girl’s path is blocked, not by the Australian bush, where she seems to be quite at home, but by the bull on the other side of the fence. Sutherland’s painting is a reminder that the bushland that the artists painted was in fact a small pocket of bush in an area that was already settled, cultivated farming land.

 

Roberts’s deep sense of connection with the bush at Box Hill led to him bring ‘bunches of gum-tips from our camp at Box Hill to decorate the studio’, a practice that quickly became a fashion. The artists’ remembered their camp at Box Hill with fondness and nostalgia. Years later Roberts recalled:


Image: Tom Roberts The artists’ camp (1886)

Tom Roberts
The artists’ camp
(1886)
oil on canvas
46.0 x 60.9 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Felton Bequest, 1943

Happy Box Hill – the barked roof of the old people, Houstens [sic] – the land sylvan as it ever was – tea-tree along the creek – young blue gum-twigs – the ‘good night’ of the jackies as the soft darkness fell- then talks round the fire, the ‘Prof’ [McCubbin] philosophic – we forgot everything, but the peace of it.

and

You remember the evenings we sat at the Camp, the last light of the sun on the ti-tree in the creek – the smell of the chop - & gum twigs – the mopoke, a happy time.
(McCubbin to Roberts, 1914)


image: decorative motif

Richmond, New South Wales

Charles Conder
Herrick’s blossoms (c.1889)
oil on cardboard
13.1 x 24.0 cm
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
Purchased, 1969

 

Image: Charles Conder,  Springtime, 1888

Charles Conder
Springtime 1888
oil on canvas
44.3 x 59.1 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Felton Bequest, 1941

 

Image: Charles Conder,  An early taste for literature, 1888

Charles Conder
An early taste for literature 1888
oil on canvas
61.4 x 51.2 cm
Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, Victoria
Mary Helen Keep Bequest, 1944

Richmond, in New South Wales, was a popular location for Sydney-based plein-air painters such as A.J. Daplyn and Julian Ashton. While Roberts, McCubbin and Streeton were painting at Mentone, the young Charles Conder was beginning his career as an open-air painter at Richmond. Conder, who grew up in England, arrived in Sydney in 1884 to train as a surveyor under his uncle, William Jacomb Conder. However contemporaries recalled that ‘Charles had no intention of being a surveyor, his heart and soul was all on painting.’ Conder soon joined Daplyn on sketching trips to ocean beaches close to the city, and Julian Ashton and his students on painting expeditions to the Hawkesbury River and Richmond.

 

Conder spent a fortnight at Richmond in August 1888, staying at the Royal Hotel with three other painters, including A.H.Fullwood. Springtime, 1888, and An early taste for literature, 1888, were painted on this camp. Ashton had advised his students to work only from first-hand experience, to paint familiar scenes and to choose a landscape ‘which charms the eye.’ Conder did paint on the spot but he also continued to work on his canvases back in the studio, where he usually added the figures to his compositions. The angular forms of blossom trees in Conder’s Richmond paintings add to the decorative effect of his work. Blossoms became an important motif for Conder, their brief life on the branch alluding to the larger theme of the transience of life and beauty. In his painting Herrick’s blossoms, c.1888/1889, Conder referred to a poem, ‘To Blossoms’, by the seventeenth century English poet, Robert Herrick. Herrick also saw fragile, delicate blossoms as symbolic of the brevity of life and beauty.

 

An early taste for literature, in which a calf can be seen chomping into the newspaper left by the parasoled ladies, is typical of the light and witty humour of Conder’s observations.

 

Image: Map of the Hawkesbury River near Richmond, NSW

Map of the Hawkesbury River near Richmond, NSW
Map Legend: 1.The purple noon 2.The river and Hawkesbury Rover
3.Traveller’s Rest 4.Sunnyside 5.Summer noon, Hawkesbury River
6.The Australian Road 7.A road to Kurrajong 8.Griffiths' Farm
9.Belmont, Richmond Hill 10.The landing place, Windsor Wharf


image: decorative motif


Mentone

Tom Roberts
born Great Britain 1856
arrived Australia 1869
died 1931
The Sunny South 1888–90
oil on canvas
30.8 x 61.2 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne


In the summer of 1886–87 Tom Roberts, Fred McCubbin and Louis Abrahams rented a cottage in Mentone, a beachside suburb about twenty kilometres from Melbourne. The Brighton railway line had not been extended to Mentone. Roberts and McCubbin chose the quieter Mentone and nearby Beaumaris as the site for their artists’ camp rather than Brighton, which became very crowded in the summer months.

 

The artists first encountered nineteen-year-old Arthur Streeton sketching on the beach at Rickett’s Point. Roberts recalled: ‘He was standing out on the wet rocks, painting there, and I saw that his work was full of light and air. We asked him to join us and that was the beginning of a long and delightful association.’

Streeton later remembered the cottage on the cliffs above Beaumaris that the artists rented:

In spite of the heat, the vile hammocks we slept in; the pest of flies and the puce-covered walls, we had a great time here…On Sundays we took a billy and chops and tomatoes down to a beautiful little bay which was full of fossils, where we camped for the day. We returned home during the evening through groves of exquisite tea-trees [sic]. The sea serene, the cliffs of Sandringham flushed with the afterglow.

 

Tom Roberts’ The Sunny South, c.1887, shows one such ‘beautiful little bay’, the blue sea, white sand and brilliant sunlight visible beyond the shady grove of ti-trees where the artists have gathered before bathing nude in the sea. Open sea bathing was not officially permitted until 1911. Public baths at Mentone and Sandringham had rosters that segregated males and females for therapeutic sea bathing.

 

Image: Tom Roberts Slumbering sea, Mentone 1887

Tom Roberts
Slumbering sea, Mentone 1887
oil on canvas
51.3 x 76.5 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased with the assistance of a special grant
from the Government of Victoria, 1979

In Roberts’ Slumbering Sea, Mentone, 1887, the distant cliff, the still water, even the white-clad figures seem to be bleached of colour in the glare of the midday sun. Crisp transitions from light to shadow on the foreground cliff emphasize the intensity and clarity of the Australian light. The coastal leisure -time activities depicted were increasingly becoming part of life in Melbourne in the 1880s. The lady who observes the scene, directing our attention to the activity at the water’s edge, is apparently unaware of the remains of the Aboriginal coastal shell midden in the eroded bank. The scatters of shell remains exposed in the bank indicate that this was the location of meals eaten by the Boonerwrung people on this site.


image: decorative motif


Heidelberg

Charles Conder
Impressionists’ camp 1889
oil on paper on cardboard
13.9 x 24.0 cm
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
Gift of Mr and Mrs Fred Williams and family, 1979

 

In 1888 Streeton took the train to Heidelberg (the railway was put through in May 1888), to visit the site of Louis Buvelot’s Summer afternoon, Templestowe, 1866. On his return to Heidelberg station, carrying a picture that he just painted and which was still wet, he met Mr. C. M. Davies and his sister. To Streeton’s delight, Mr Davies offered him ‘artistic possession’ of the old weatherboard homestead on his Mount Eagle estate. The house, which stood on the top of a hill and was surrounded by a beautiful collection of conifers and other exotic trees, became the artists’ ‘place in the country’. Streeton, Conder and Roberts spent the summers of 1888/9 and 1889/90 there, and it was their paintings from this time and place that led to them being known as the ‘Heidelberg School.’

 

Streeton spent his first night there in December 1888, sleeping on the floor with his boots and coat for a pillow. Conder and Roberts joined him early in 1889:

Our beds were made of cornsacks nailed to two saplings, and supported by upright pieces to raise them from the floor. Our seats were old boxes, our dining table was a box with boards placed across it. Our leg of mutton, potatoes, and so forth were all cooked together in a large pail. Our illumination was tallow candles. Surrounded by the loveliness of the new landscape, with heat, drought, and flies, and hard pressed for the necessaries of life, we worked hard, and were a happy trio.

The idyllic summers shared by Streeton, Roberts and Conder at Heidleberg were remembered with great nostalgia by the three painters. Jane Sutherland made day trips to Heidelberg and art students visited them at weekends. During the days the three would paint and in the evenings they talked long into the night, often reading the poetry of the English Romantics and drinking red wine. Conder captured an impression of the interior of the house, with his comrades, Roberts (seated) and Streeton, in his 9 by 5 oil sketch, Impressionists’ camp, 1889.

 

Image: Arthur Streeton Golden summer, Eaglemont 1889

Arthur Streeton
Golden summer, Eaglemont 1889
oil on canvas
81.3 x 152.6 cm
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
Purchased, 1995


The room, with its table, coat hanging on the door and the paned window was suggested with a minimum of sketchy but securely placed strokes of pigment on cardboard. Lines scratched into the oil paint with the end of the brush signify floorboards and work as spatial markers. The painting on the wall is Streeton’s sketch, Impression for ‘Golden summer’, c.1888. Streeton’s Golden summer, Eaglemont, 1889, with its stretch of dry golden grass and blue summer skies, epitomises the artists’ vision of their place at Heidelberg, described by Streeton as ‘our hill of gold’:

Image: Arthur Streeton, Near Heidelberg, 1890

Arthur Streeton
Near Heidelberg 1890
oil on canvas
53.7 x 43.3 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Felton Bequest, 1943

Oh, the long hot day. Oh, the gift of appreciation. I sit on our hill of gold, on the north side, the wind seems sunburnt & fiery as it runs through my beard – Yes rather, see look there: north-east the very long divide is beautiful, warm blue far far away all dreaming & remote…Yes I sit here in the upper circle surrounded by copper and gold & smile joy under my fly net as all the light, glory & and quivering brightness passes slowly & freely before my eyes.

 

The artists’ working methods, painting in the open air, working quickly to capture the impression before the light and colours of the landscape changed, is evident in Streeton’s Near Heidelberg, 1890. The blues of the sky have been brushed in rapidly using a square brush which Streeton has turned on its side to sketch in the tall, spindly eucalypt. The foreground is established with the sketchy dandelions and the tiny eucalypt superimposed over the field of yellow grasses. The figures, day visitors from the city, have been suggested with a few economical strokes of white, black and touches of red. To convey the brilliance of the light Streeton has used a high-keyed palette, shadows registered in blues and violets. Streeton’s evocation of the heat and light of the dry Australian summer in this and other paintings of Heidelberg became identified with the ‘true image’ of Australia in the popular imagination.

image: decorative motif


Grosvenor Chambers and the city of Melbourne

Tom Roberts, Madame Pfund (1887)

Tom Roberts
Madame Pfund (1887)
oil on canvas on composition board
142.7 x 76.0 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased, 1948

Image: Tom Roberts,  Mrs L. A. Abrahams, 1888

Tom Roberts
Mrs L. A. Abrahams 1888
oil on canvas
41.0 x 36.0 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased, 1946


Grosvenor Chambers at 9 Collins Street Melbourne, built ‘expressly for occupation by artists’, was opened in April 1888. Roberts took a studio there, as did Jane Sutherland and Clara Southern. Conder moved in when he came to Melbourne in October 1888, but only stayed until the following February. Other artists, such as Louis Abrahams, came and went, but Grosvenor Chambers became a focal point for social interaction between the artists of the city. Roberts initiated studio conversaziones, at which artists could discuss the latest art journals to arrive in Melbourne, there were informal musical events and there were ‘studio days’, when visitors could inspect pictures prior to public exhibition.

 

Roberts’s portrait, Mrs L. A. Abrahams, 1888, gives an insight into the décor of his studio. He had been inspired by studios seen in London and in Europe and he understood how a fashionably decorated studio could help with the sale of an artist’s work. Golda Abrahams is seated in an ‘Aesthetic’ interior, a panel of muslin in the manner of Whistler’s studio behind her, framed by a tall stem of pampas grass. The lacquered tray, the lantern and the sprig of japonica in the small blue vase refer to the contemporary fashion for Japanese artefacts. Roberts’s use of gum tips and wattle as floral decorations started a fad for gum leaves in the home.

 

Roberts, Streeton and McCubbin responded to the demand for portraits in the boom decade of the 1880s. Roberts received his sitters at his well-equipped studio at Grosvenor Chambers. One of his finest portraits Madame Pfund 1887, was painted prior to his move into Grosvenor Chambers. Like many of Roberts’s subjects Madame Pfund, who established a boarding school for girls in a St Kilda mansion, was socially very well connected. Roberts’s masterful handling of the textures of feathers, lace and the stiff fabric of Madame Pfund’s magnificent dress, and his portrayal of her character and intelligence typifies his ability as a portrait painter.

 

Image:Tom Roberts, By the Treasury (1889)

Tom Roberts
By the Treasury (1889)
oil on wood panel
23.6 x 14.2 cm
Purchased through the NGV Foundation
with the assistance of
The Hugh D. T. Williamson

Image: Arthur Streeton Princess & Burke & Wills 1889

Arthur Streeton
Princess & Burke & Wills 1889
oil on wood panel
21.5 x 16.5 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased though the NGV Foundation
with the assistance of
The Hugh D. T. Williamson Foundation,
Honorary Life Benefactor, 2005


 

Although the Australian Impressionists have traditionally been associated with landscape painting, cityscapes were an important aspect of their work. The artists’ presence in the precinct of Grosvenor Chambers is reflected in the number of works that depict urban subjects taken from that area. Streeton’s Princess & Burke and Wills, 1889, shows Charles Summers’s memorial sculpture of the explorers Burke and Wills in front of the Princess Theatre in Spring Street.In Roberts’s By the Treasury,1889, painted on a wet day, is the view of Collins Street as it turns into Spring Street. Part of the Treasury Building can be seen on the right. The Australian Impressionists’ interest in urban subjects echoes that of the French Impressionists. In 1860 the French writer, Charles Baudelaire, urged the artists of Paris to paint ‘modern life’. In an essay entitled ‘On the heroism of modern life’, he wrote, ‘The life of our city is rich in poetic and marvellous subjects.’ The Australian Impressionists heard this view directly in a newspaper article titled ‘What should artists paint?’ written by the visiting journalist, Sydney Dickinson.

 


image: decorative motif


Sydney and the Hawkesbury

Arthur Streeton
The three liners 1893
oil on wood panel
13.6 x 69.8 cm
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
Gift of S. H. Ervin, 1962

 

Conder, Roberts and Streeton all spent significant periods in Sydney and the harbour city and its coastal environs became important subjects in their work. Roberts first met Conder in Sydney late in 1887 when they were both invited to take tea with an artist, Madame Roth. A strong friendship blossomed at once and the two painted together at Coogee in the Easter of 1888. Conder’s Coogee Bay, 1888, and Roberts’s Holiday sketch at Coogee, 1888, were painted on the same day and from the same headland looking over the sweep of the bay. A comparison between the two works reveals the individual stylistic characteristic of the two artists. Conder’s more decorative manner, expressed in the silhouettes of the tree branches, and his paler, more pastel palette with notes of pink in hats and parasols, contrasts with the Naturalism of Roberts’s picture and his bolder palette.

 

Image:Charles Conder Coogee Bay 1888

Charles Conder
Coogee Bay 1888
oil on cardboard
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased with the assistance
of a special grant from the
of Victoria

Image: Tom Roberts Holiday sketch at Coogee 1888

Tom Roberts
Holiday sketch at Coogee 1888
oil on canvas
Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney
Purchased, 1954


Roberts returned to Sydney with Streeton in the early 1890s, lured away from the economically depressed Melbourne by the possibility of new opportunities in the harbourside city. They had heard the news of a generous annual watercolour prize for scenes of New South Wales. They first set up camp at Mosman Bay, one of the small coves on the harbour. Curlew Camp, where they finally settled, was just around the point from the Mosman ferry, giving them easy access to the city.

 

Image: Arthur Streeton, The Point Wharf, Mosman Bay 1893

Arthur Streeton
The Point Wharf, Mosman Bay 1893
oil on canvas
38.0 x 25.5 cm
Private collection, Sydney

Sydney became Streeton’s subject. The bravura of his crisp brushwork and his trademark blue, the blue that he had used at Heidelberg, were perfectly suited to registering images of the bustling activity on Sydney’s blue harbour. Diagonal strokes of deeper pigment sweep across the blue of the water in Streeton’s The Point Wharf, Mosman Bay, 1893, suggesting the shadows cast by the gentle movement of the water. The light reflecting off the sun-bleached sandstone on the shore is translated into passages of golden yellow pigment over the blue of the water. The ferry, belching rosy smoke from its funnel, signals the energy and activity of the harbour. Strokes of pigment have been applied rapidly, the shifting image of water and light fixed on the canvas with assurance and an economy of means.

 

Streeton responded to the different moods of the harbour. His panoramic The three liners, 1893, shows the harbour on a grey day. With the immediacy of a snapshot, Streeton has captured a moment in the life of the harbour. Small craft can be seen making their way through the swell while behind them the three impressive liners sit quietly at Circular Quay. The rise and fall of the water is suggested by the lines Streeton scratched into the pigment with the end of his brush. Behind all the activity on the water sits the dark form of the city.

 


Image:Tom Roberts Mosman’s Bay 1894

Tom Roberts
Mosman’s Bay 1894
oil on canvas
64.7 x 97.8 cm
New England Regional Art Museum,
Armidale, New South Wales
Gift of Howard Hinton, 1933

Much of Roberts’s time in Sydney was devoted to portraiture and he did not paint as many harbour views as his friend Streeton. One of his harbour pictures is Mosman’s Bay, 1894, a painting in which Roberts portrays the site near their camp as the setting for city dwellers to enjoy the leisure time activities of boating, strolling by the water’s edge and enjoying afternoon tea at Lewis’s Refreshment rooms, situated on the jetty.

 


Image: Arthur Streeton ‘The purple noon’s transparent might’ 1896

Arthur Streeton
‘The purple noon’s transparent might’
1896
oil on canvas
123.0 x 123.0 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Purchased, 1896

In the mid 1890s Streeton began to visit the area of Richmond on the Hawkesbury River, where Conder had painted in 1888. Streeton may have stayed at the Griffiths’s farm where Conder had lodged, even though it was within commuter distance of Sydney. He probably also stayed at the Traveller’s Rest hotel in North Richmond, a few kilometres from which Streeton discovered the view of the Hawkesbury River that became the subject of a series of large-scale works, including ‘The purple noon’s transparent might’, 1896. In his ‘Notes for memoirs’, written many years later, he recalled his sense of discovering ‘the great hidden poetry’ of the Australian landscape in the ‘glory of river and plain spread before me.’ In keeping with his pattern of unusual formats for his canvases, Streeton chose a square canvas that gave a sense of being on the spot even though the view is panoramic.


image: decorative motif


References and Further Reading

    General

  • Clark , J & Whitelaw, B 1985, Golden Summers: Heidelberg and Beyond, International Cultural Corporation of Australia Limited, Sydney.
  • Galbally, A & Gray, A (Eds)1989, Letters from Smike: The Letters of Arthur Streeton 1890–1943, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
  • Topliss, H 1984, The Artists’ Camps: Plein Air Painting in Melbourne 1885–1898, Monash University Gallery, Clayton.

 

    Box Hill

  • Astbury, L 2007 ‘Memory and Desire: Box Hill 1885-88’ in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Richmond

  • Galbally, A 2007, ‘Portrait of the Surveyor as a Young Artist: Charles Conder in Richmond and the Hawkesbury area, 1887–88’ in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Galbally, A & Pearce, B 2003, Charles Conder, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.
  • Mentone

  • Thomas, D 2007 ‘The Sunny South: Bayside Melbourne Life and Landscape’, catalogue essay in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Heidelberg

  • Lane, T 2007 ‘Painting on the Hill of Gold: Heidelberg 1888–90’ in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Grosvenor Chambers

  • Lane, T 2007 ‘Grosvenor Chambers, A Phenomenon of Marvellous Melbourne’ in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Trumble, A 2007 ‘Colony and Capital in Heidelberg Portraiture’, in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Lane, T 2003 Nineteenth-Century Australian Art in the National Gallery of Victoria, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Sydney and the Hawkesbury

  • Eagle,M 2007 ‘Friendly Rivalry: Paintings of Waterside Sydney, 1888 and 1890’ in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Eagle, M 2007 ‘Streeton in the city of laughing loveliness’ in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Clark, J ‘High Noon on the Hawkesbury River: Arthur Streeton in the Hawkesbury District of New South Wales’ in Lane,T (ed) 2007 Australian Impressionism, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  •  
AARDVARK
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