fig. 3
Eugène von Guérard

Introduction

This paper discusses three paintings by Eugène von Guérard in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria. Often misunderstood as mere picturesque landscapes, Von Guérard’s Australian works are personalised renderings made from an informed and passionate observation of nature. Within the aesthetic confines of a local landscape tradition, he produced a unique body of work that brought out the Romantic possibilities of the Australian landscape yet treated it with scientific precision. Aided by technical examination of his works, it is possible to trace a compositional development – from the artist’s location in the landscape to pictorial completion in the urban studio – that pinpoints his artistic intention and enables a factual interpretation of his depictions.

Beginnings in Europe

Eugène von Guérard was born in Vienna into the nobility. His father was a court painter for Emperor Francis I and his mother was the daughter of an Austrian field marshal. When Eugène was fourteen, his parents’ marriage failed, and he departed with his father, travelling extensively through Italy, sketching and painting, providing what would have been an informative apprenticeship for the aspiring young artist. They settled in Rome, and were associated with the Nazarene painters whose work and ideology had a lasting influence on the young Eugène. By 1832 the pair was living in Naples, but after his father’s death, Von Guérard moved to Düsseldorf and enrolled in the Kunstakademie.

At this time the Düsseldorf academy was one of the most highly ranked in Europe. Directed by former Nazarene painter William Shadower, an independent landscape school had been established under the supervision of Johann Wilhelm Schirmer. Already aged twenty-eight, Von Guérard spent approximately six years at the academy, joining Schirmer and fellow artist Karl Friedrich Lessing on sketching and plein-air painting trips through the Rhineland and Westphalia regions. The teaching was based on the prevailing German Romantic tradition that emphasised a direct experience of nature and strove to elevate its artistic depiction to an act of religious veneration. Particularly influential was the scientific work of Alexander Humboldt and subsequent writings of artist-philosopher Carl Gustav Carus, both of whom advocated a holistic contemplation of nature, which at this time was also being echoed in the writings of John Ruskin.1 V. L. Wagner, ‘John Ruskin and artistical geology in America’, Winterthur Portfolio, vol. 23, nos 2/3, Summer–Autumn, 1988, pp. 151–67.

Australia

After the revolutionary upheaval of 1848, little is known of Von Guérard’s movements in Europe.2 A forthcoming doctoral thesis by Ruth Pullin, ‘Eugene von Guérard and the science of landscape painting’ (University of Melbourne), will provide much needed insight into Von Guérard’s experience and influences before his arrival in Australia. He was briefly the drawing master of the son of Augustus Tulk, an Englishman of independent means who had spent time in Germany and would become the inaugural librarian of the Melbourne Public Library. Encouraged by Tulk to travel to Australia in search of opportunities, Von Guérard left England on the Windermere, arriving in Geelong on 24 December 1852 and immediately making his way to the Ballarat gold fields.

After sixteen months of minor success in prospecting, he decided to return to painting. As was his customary habit, he made intermittent diary entries while in Ballarat, which provided important insight into everyday life and the socio–political division of the diggings. His concluding entry for this period, made on 4 February 1854, details his preparations for departure, including arranging for his last gold find to be made into wedding rings for himself and his fiancée, Louise Arnz. His future bride was soon to arrive as one of four guests on a private boat purchased by Tulk, who, on Von Guérard’s advice, was migrating for health reasons.3 The Guyon arrived on 13 July 1854. As well as the Tulk family, there were four other passengers. Miss Louise Arnz was from the family firm of Arnz & Co, lithographers in Düsseldorf. The expanded artistic network provided by the Arnz family and also Tulk in England and its influence on Von Guérard, needs further investigation (see ship passenger list, Public Record Office, Victoria, fiche 70, p. 001; for Tulk, see Australasian Sketcher, 4 October 1873, p. 4; E. La Touche Armstrong, The Book of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria: 1856–1906, Trustees of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 1906). After several private business ventures failed, Tulk was appointed librarian of the Public Library in 1856 and later proved instrumental in helping establish the National Gallery of Victoria and became an important ally of Von Guérard.4 In 1870 Von Guérard was appointed master of the School of Painting and curator of the Gallery until he retired, due to ill health, in 1882. During this time he also periodically acted as a restorer for works in the collection.

With his Melbourne studio established, Von Guérard continued to travel extensively, frequently through arduous terrain and under difficult conditions, to source compositions for paintings. In the studio he transcribed a selection of chronicled images to a blank canvas with vigilant drawing that was subsequently hidden by paint layers. In most cases this underdrawing can be revealed by infrared radiation and, along with the initial sketch and final painting, survives as documentation of the compositional development of the work that highlights Von Guérard’s aspirations, geographical fidelity and working method.5 For an extended account of Von Guérard’s underdrawing, see Michael Varcoe-Cocks, ‘The verisimilar line: The use of infrared in a survey of a group of paintings by Eugene von Guérard’, Melbourne Journal of Technical Studies, 2005, pp. 19–34.

First impressions

The day after his final diarised entry on the diggings, Von Guérard sketched a nearby favoured location as a keepsake of his travels. The drawing was developed into the painting Warrenheip Hills near Ballarat, 1854 (fig. 1), reproduced here for the first time since restoration.6 All works discussed have been restored by the present writer as part of an ongoing program to address the NGV holdings by the artist. The accompanying technical survey forms the basis of this text, supplemented by research into external collections. Although Von Guérard had already completed plein-air oil studies in Melbourne, this painting is a historic document of the artist’s first formal pictorial approach upon arrival in the colony and also captures his working method at that time.7 Plein-air sketches in oil on paper were a dominant landscape practice in Rome and also taught in Düsseldorf by Schirmer and Lessing (see Marcell Perse, ‘Natur im Blick’ in Marcell Perse (ed.), Die Landschaften des Johann Wilhelm Schirmer (Jülich 1807 – Karlsruhe 1863), Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Jülich und Forschungszentrum Jülich, 2001). I am indebted to Marika Strohschnieder for translating this text and to Ruth Pullin for providing the original. Edward Comstock found Düsseldorf plein-air studies by Von Guérard in the 1970s (see Candice Bruce, Edward Comstock & Frank Mcdonald, Eugene von Guerard 1811–1901: A German romantic in the antipodes, Alister Taylor, Martinborough, New Zealand, 1982, p. 174), while Australian examples periodically appear in auction records (for this period, see Mount Macedon from a point between St Kilda and Brighton, 1853, oil on paper on board, Christie’s, Melbourne, 27 August 2002, lot 49). Unlike the spatially sublime vistas that would dominate his future work, Von Guérard’s early tendency was to seek more intermittent settings with an emphasis on the figure, in this case an idealised and plentiful arcadia. He transcribed the composition with brushed ink onto a commercial canvas of identical proportions, loosely allocating space to elements of vegetation and a more careful delineation of geographical topography (fig. 2).8 To date this is the only known case of using ink for the underdrawing. The precision of a dry pencil was better suited to the artist’s increased reliance on underdrawing. The original vision is augmented by memory and a moderate level of artistic invention that enables exploration of a geometric interest not entirely realised in the initial drawing. Changes include the removal of trees from the middle distance, thereby emphasising the diagonally fallen logs; the addition of figures on the centre vertical line of the composition; and extra foreground rocks that oppose the idealised (and not observed) serpentine braches in the opposite corner.

Through X-radiography and microscopy it is possible to determine the sequence of painting after the underdrawing was completed; this is revealed as a formulaic method common to all his paintings. With larger forms such as the distant hills and foreground tree trunks initially established, the sky is enclosed around their borders, leaving voids where larger sections of foliage would be included to retain the drawing. Branches and foliage then follow to guarantee an illusion of a backlit and diffused light. With the drawing hidden by the sky, branches frequently diverge from the original design and, in this case, mere approximations are used. The idiosyncratic brushwork, which remains constant throughout his career, is a systematic progression from dark to light with corresponding changes in pigment use; the more expensive being reserved for final highlights. Von Guérard’s strong command of his materials was no doubt informed by both Schirmer and his own father who had knowledge of pigment chemistry and had sideline businesses as colourmen.9 An extensive pigment survey of Von Guérard’s paintings has been carried out by the author using portable X-ray Flourescene (pXRF). Although space prevents a detailed description here, a modernising of Von Guérard’s palette with nineteenth-century pigments occurs during his time in Australia that suggests a commitment to the advancement of the material components of his painting practice.

As the drawing done on location only detailed a microscopic examination of the native grasses and flora opposite the pool, the artist incorporated a diversity of botanical species not originally recorded. It was common for these inclusions to be taken from accurate botanical studies and plein-air oil sketches collected during sketching trips.

Despite the specificity of the title, Warrenheip Hills near Ballarat is modelled on more than one location, showing a common artistic interest in noting geology, botanical species and Indigenous culture.10 Von Guérard expressed genuine concern for the suffering of Indigenous people caused by European colonisation. He also had a personal collection of cultural objects and weapons, presumably traded on his wide travels, some of which are now in the Museum of Ethnology, Berlin (see Candice Bruce, ‘Nothing overlooked: The studio of Eugene von Guerard’, in Wessel Reinink & Feroen Stumpel (eds), Memory and Oblivion: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Congress of the History of Art, Amsterdam, 1996, Kluwer, Boston 1999, n. 22, p. 861). Although Von Guérard would never relinquish his artistic licence, this work sits as an interesting precursor to a more detailed observation of nature.

Expanded horizons

Von Guérard found a rich intellectual community in Melbourne, including a strong contingent of fellow expatriates active in both scientific and artistic disciplines who participated in societies. Among them was the influential Deutscher Verein, one of a select group of artists who sought membership of the Royal Society of Victoria (RSV), and the only artist to become a councillor, a position that associated him with government astrologists, biologists, geographical surveyors and academics who were the primary recipients of international scientific exchange and at the forefront of its discussion.11 As a response to Professor von Nuemayer’s departure from the colony, Von Guérard designed the RSV Honorary Life Membership Diploma (see MS 11663 vol. VIII (c) Royal Society of Victoria meetings, 23 January 1860–13 July 1893. La Trobe Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria). Science and art coexisted in this circle, although the society’s president complained in 1858 that ‘art, instead of following, precedes science’. Von Guérard quickly established himself in between the naturalist–illustrator and landscape painters working in a classical aesthetic tradition.

His training and ability as a draftsman was suited to expeditionary documentation and he began participating in scientific excursions initiated for both colonial progress and scientific endeavour. In 1862 he accompanied Professor Georg Neumayer on his magnetic observations of remote north-eastern Victoria; work that followed in Humboldt’s footsteps and received his support.12 The party was the first to ascend Mount Kosciusko, celebrating Von Guérard’s fiftieth birthday on the summit before a storm forced their retreat, causing the loss of one member of the party for thirteen days. Both scientists would have anticipated the ecological significance of the area through descriptions of the eminent government botanist Baron Ferdinand von Mueller who first visited in 1854 and collected numerous previously unknown species.13 See ‘The government botanist’s report of his journey from Melbourne to Omeo in the Australian Alps, Omeo, 1854’ in possession of present writer. From his own experience, Von Guérard would produce several significant works including Spring in the valley of the Mitta Mitta with the Bogong Ranges in the distance, 1863 (fig. 3), taken from a drawing done on the 10,000-hectare pastoral run of Yabba, located at the foothills of palaeozoic terrain caused by the slippage of the Tawonga fault line.14 See J. Stirling, ‘Physical features of the Australian Alps’, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, no. 18, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, 1882, pp. 98–110. The suggestion of pastoral opportunity located within the immense grandeur of untouched nature had great colonial appeal and another version was later commissioned by Sir Archibald Michie for the NGV collection. This second, larger canvas, Spring in the valley of the Mitta Mitta with the Bogong Ranges, 1866 (fig. 4), was the first painting by the artist to enter a public collection and signalled a critical highpoint in his career, marked by this response from the critic James Smith:

The original painting in the NGV exhibits all the characteristics of Von Guérard’s style, which is distinguished by a fine perception of local form and colour, and especially by conscientious fidelity. He reproduces exactly what he sees, being essentially a realist in art.15 J. Smith, Illustrated Australian News, Saturday 12 July 1867, p. 8. In time Smith would object to Von Guérard’s commitment to this fidelity and, ironically, there would be a push for a more ‘truthful’ interpretation of the Australian landscape.

Smith had not ventured into remote parts of north-eastern Victoria, preferring instead to ‘simply visit the artist’s studio’, but close examination does confirm the artist’s emphasis on geographical fidelity and particular attention to botanical classification, which become strongly characteristic of his Australian work.16 The Examiner and Melbourne Weekly Times, May 1860, p. 8.

  

Abandoning brushed ink for the accuracy of pencil line, Von Guérard transferred the original drawing to canvas with scientific precision. Using delicate outlines, he contoured the distant ranges; drew the singular trees of the intermontane plateau and, in a looser hand, delineated the vegetation (fig. 5). The foregrounds of these two paintings were adjusted to ensure a pictorial harmony stipulated by the changes in scale, but continue to represent local species and an attempt to preserve the individual character of trees observed on location.

Using digital manipulation it is possible to rescale the horizon lines of the original drawing and two paintings to enable a direct comparison and assessment of likeness, which reveals a disciplined rendering of the original geography, even when reproduced years apart and at varying scales. Von Guérard achieved this verisimilitude by adapting a sophisticated variation of squaring that employed temporary string lines to divide both the drawing and canvas into equal segments so he could diligently transcribe, square by square, the composition to canvas.17 Despite an extensive survey, no grid lines have been found under Von Guérard’s paintings. Instead, he used small marks around the periphery to align string lines, which could be removed to show a commissioning or critical eye the composition in progress. As can be seen in fig. 5, he was not afraid to use ruled lines on the surface. Several examples of these repeated compositions relate to geographical formations of special interest. The most extreme pairing in both variation of scale and complexity of detail is Weatherboard Creek Falls, Jamieson’s Valley, New South Wales, 1862. The complete underdrawing beneath the larger version in the NGV collection is the biggest surviving drawing undertaken by the artist.

Encouraged and informed by the local scientific community, Von Guérard applied his training to produce a group of picturesque landscapes intended for the general public who increasingly saw the landscape less in the context of Biblical theories of origins and more as a search for fundamental truths of nature. Von Guérard’s remote observations also appealed to an international scientific audience. When the Austrian Novara Expedition visited Australia on its circumnavigation of the world in 1858, the geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter visited Melbourne and recorded meeting both Von Guérard and Tulk. Over a decade later, Von Guérard forwarded a copy of his lithographic album Australian Landscapes to Hochstetter who placed such faith in their geographical accuracy that he used them for his illustrative lecture on the physical aspects and character of the colonies presented to the Geographical Society of Vienna.18 See The Argus, 19 May 1870, p. 5.

The domesticated landscape

Von Guérard successfully marketed his talent for realism to affluent Victorian landowners, enabling him to secure a range of commissions of homestead portraits modelled on similar paintings of English country houses. This unique body of work provides an illustrated chronology of pastoral development from early colonial cottage dwellings to more stately mansions and, like his written record of the gold fields, documents a social and geopolitical adaptation of land after European settlement.

To source these commissions, the artist undertook extended sketching trips through newly opened-up regions of Victoria, most notably the affluent Western District. For the commissioning eye, Von Guérard was able to render tangible the material status and proprietorial pride of the Victorian squatter. Often cited as his most accomplished homestead portrait, Mr Clark’s Station, Deep Creek, near Keilor, 1867 (fig. 6), celebrates the grand Italianate homestead and garden of Glenara on the upper Maribyrnong River.

A successful pastoralist, Walter Clark was an avid horticulturalist clearly committed to the process of acclimatisation, which at the time was seen as vital to the success of the colony. His youngest son, Alister, would later purchase the property and became one of Australia’s most noted rosarians, releasing 122 new varieties including Black Boy, Lorraine Lee, Nancy Hayward and Sunny South, as well as a number of daffodils.

Von Guérard first visited Glenara in May 1865, undertaking detailed drawings and small plein-air oil studies of the surrounding valleys, creek and rocky outcrops. Successfully securing the commission, he developed an extensive preliminary drawing comprising a large folio sheet and three extensions. At some point in the life of the drawing, the component sheets were disassembled and one pair was mounted in reverse to create two distinct drawings, which were given the titles Deep Creek Homestead and Unidentified bush scene.19 Eugène von Guérard, ‘Sketches 1864–1877’, ZDL PXX17, fols 15, 16, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. Since the sheets can not be readily unmounted, a digital reconstruction of the original format is given here (fig. 7).

The drawing is an impressive example of Von Guérard’s in-the-field observations, the drawn line supplemented with annotations that identify in writing the native trees, garden plants and geographical features. Sometimes, for expediency, the artist relies on a form of codified shorthand, here referenced against a key in the bottom of the drawing.

Von Guérard’s available vantage point was the neighbouring escarpment accessible by the bridge seen at the bottom of the painting. Mount Macedon emerges from the outstretched horizon below an allocation of sky based on the golden section. Depicted on the lawn in the original drawing is Walter Clark, his wife Annie and two of their children, while another child and two figures adorn the veranda. Tragically, the pregnant Annie Clark died four months later, following childbirth and, consequently, is not shown in the final painting.20 Annie Clark died in October 1865 (Victorian Probate Index 1841–1992 GMF99, box 1, fische 5). Six years later Walter Clark died from a buggy accident caused by his wrong mounting of the harness that resulted in the horse being overrun by the buggy on the steep decline. (VPRS 24/P0000/288).

Further changes seem to have happened after Von Guérard’s initial observations, requiring him to return to the property in December to adjust his drawing and, later, the painting that he had begun. The elongated lawn to the right of the house was originally documented as being an apple grove populated by adult trees that continued in line with the fragmented rows seen in the lower right of the painting. However, the preliminary drawing was adjusted by crossing out and, where possible, erasing trees located on what became lawn, and replacing them with a border of juvenile conifers. Infrared examination reveals that the trees were also painted on the canvas, but then removed to match the amendments made to the drawing. From this we can conclude that the artist made adjustments to the composition after the initial drawing and once the painting was begun in the studio. The only feasible explanation is that Clark, possibly motivated by the forthcoming painting, modified the garden and recalled Von Guérard to document the enhancements (fig. 8).

This hypothesis is supported by the miraculous survival of copies of receipts itemising Clark’s purchases from local nurserymen, now held in the Melbourne Herbarium. Specific items of interest include an uncharacteristic purchase of grass seed, including couch and crested dogstail, through the months of March and April in 1866. Careful examination of the painting reveals the scarcity of planting and the stunted growth in this part of the garden. The accuracy of the depiction is also confirmed by a photo taken by Charles Nettleton while Annie Clark was alive, probably around the same time Von Guérard first visited the property. Although only a segment of the painted view, the photo is a testament to his ability to locate an object of specific species that captures the character of the plant.

  

Conclusion

During the 1860s Von Guérard enjoyed critical success and high standing in the intellectual community of post-gold-rush Melbourne. His works provide a mature rendering of the Australian landscape based on a genuine attempt to document the New World with passion and scientific curiosity. Ultimately, his commitment to microcosmic exactness would be rejected by a new generation that cast suspicion on what were considered grandiose depictions of nature, seeking instead an immediate response that offered a personal form of expression.

However, with a growing awareness of the ill effects of environmental change, we are perhaps much more appreciative of Von Guérard’s fidelity in capturing the sublime ephemerality of a nineteenth-century landscape at the moment of European awakening that could never exist again. The luxury of increasingly sophisticated methods of examination has made it possible to return to Von Guérard’s paintings with a renewed level of analysis that informs the individual stories and contributes to a deeper understanding of his work.

Michael Varcoe-Cocks is Conservator of Painting, NGV (in 2007)

Notes

1       V. L. Wagner, ‘John Ruskin and artistical geology in America’, Winterthur Portfolio, vol. 23, nos 2/3, Summer–Autumn, 1988, pp. 151–67.

2       A forthcoming doctoral thesis by Ruth Pullin, ‘Eugene von Guérard and the science of landscape painting’ (University of Melbourne), will provide much needed insight into Von Guérard’s experience and influences before his arrival in Australia.

3       The Guyon arrived on 13 July 1854. As well as the Tulk family, there were four other passengers. Miss Louise Arnz was from the family firm of Arnz & Co, lithographers in Düsseldorf. The expanded artistic network provided by the Arnz family and also Tulk in England and its influence on Von Guérard, needs further investigation (see ship passenger list, Public Record Office, Victoria, fiche 70, p. 001; for Tulk, see Australasian Sketcher, 4 October 1873, p. 4; E. La Touche Armstrong, The Book of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria: 1856–1906, Trustees of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 1906).

4       In 1870 Von Guérard was appointed master of the School of Painting and curator of the Gallery until he retired, due to ill health, in 1882. During this time he also periodically acted as a restorer for works in the collection.

5       For an extended account of Von Guérard’s underdrawing, see Michael Varcoe-Cocks, ‘The verisimilar line: The use of infrared in a survey of a group of paintings by Eugene von Guérard’, Melbourne Journal of Technical Studies, 2005, pp. 19–34.

6       All works discussed have been restored by the present writer as part of an ongoing program to address the NGV holdings by the artist. The accompanying technical survey forms the basis of this text, supplemented by research into external collections.

7       Plein-air sketches in oil on paper were a dominant landscape practice in Rome and also taught in Düsseldorf by Schirmer and Lessing (see Marcell Perse, ‘Natur im Blick’ in Marcell Perse (ed.), Die Landschaften des Johann Wilhelm Schirmer (Jülich 1807 – Karlsruhe 1863), Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Jülich und Forschungszentrum Jülich, 2001). I am indebted to Marika Strohschnieder for translating this text and to Ruth Pullin for providing the original. Edward Comstock found Düsseldorf plein-air studies by Von Guérard in the 1970s (see Candice Bruce, Edward Comstock & Frank Mcdonald, Eugene von Guerard 1811–1901: A German romantic in the antipodes, Alister Taylor, Martinborough, New Zealand, 1982, p. 174), while Australian examples periodically appear in auction records (for this period, see Mount Macedon from a point between St Kilda and Brighton, 1853, oil on paper on board, Christie’s, Melbourne, 27 August 2002, lot 49).

8       To date this is the only known case of using ink for the underdrawing. The precision of a dry pencil was better suited to the artist’s increased reliance on underdrawing.

9       An extensive pigment survey of Von Guérard’s paintings has been carried out by the author using portable X-ray Flourescene (pXRF). Although space prevents a detailed description here, a modernising of Von Guérard’s palette with nineteenth-century pigments occurs during his time in Australia that suggests a commitment to the advancement of the material components of his painting practice.

10     Von Guérard expressed genuine concern for the suffering of Indigenous people caused by European colonisation. He also had a personal collection of cultural objects and weapons, presumably traded on his wide travels, some of which are now in the Museum of Ethnology, Berlin (see Candice Bruce, ‘Nothing overlooked: The studio of Eugene von Guerard’, in Wessel Reinink & Feroen Stumpel (eds), Memory and Oblivion: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Congress of the History of Art, Amsterdam, 1996, Kluwer, Boston 1999, n. 22, p. 861).

11     As a response to Professor von Nuemayer’s departure from the colony, Von Guérard designed the RSV Honorary Life Membership Diploma (see MS 11663 vol. VIII (c) Royal Society of Victoria meetings, 23 January 1860–13 July 1893. La Trobe Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria).

12     The party was the first to ascend Mount Kosciusko, celebrating Von Guérard’s fiftieth birthday on the summit before a storm forced their retreat, causing the loss of one member of the party for thirteen days.

13     See ‘The government botanist’s report of his journey from Melbourne to Omeo in the Australian Alps, Omeo, 1854’ in possession of present writer.

14     See J. Stirling, ‘Physical features of the Australian Alps’, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, no. 18, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, 1882,  pp. 98–110.

15     J. Smith, Illustrated Australian News, Saturday 12 July 1867, p. 8. In time Smith would object to Von Guérard’s commitment to this fidelity and, ironically, there would be a push for a more ‘truthful’ interpretation of the Australian landscape.

16     The Examiner and Melbourne Weekly Times, May 1860, p. 8.

17     Despite an extensive survey, no grid lines have been found under Von Guérard’s paintings. Instead, he used small marks around the periphery to align string lines, which could be removed to show a commissioning or critical eye the composition in progress. As can be seen in fig. 5, he was not afraid to use ruled lines on the surface.

18     See The Argus, 19 May 1870, p. 5.

19     Eugène von Guérard, ‘Sketches 1864–1877’, ZDL PXX17, fols 15, 16, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney.

20     Annie Clark died in October 1865 (Victorian Probate Index 1841–1992 GMF99, box 1, fische 5). Six years later Walter Clark died from a buggy accident caused by his wrong mounting of the harness that resulted in the horse being overrun by the buggy on the steep decline. (VPRS 24/P0000/288).