First published in 2016 by

The Council of Trustees of the National Gallery of Victoria

180 St Kilda Road

Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia

www.ngv.vic.gov.au

This publication is copyright and all rights are reserved. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced or communicated to the public by any process without prior written permission. Enquiries should be directed to the publisher.

© Copyright in each article is retained by the contributor, 2016. Main articles have been refereed in full.

ISSN: 00667935

Every effort has been made to contact persons owning copyright in the works of art illustrated in this publication. In cases where this has not been possible owners are invited to notify the Publications department of the National Gallery of Victoria.

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the NGV or the publisher.

This book contains the names and images of Indigenous people who have passed away and which may cause distress to some Indigenous people. Please note that some records contain terms, annotations and titles that reflect the period in which the item was recorded, and may be considered inappropriate today in some circumstances. These are a reflection of past practices only and do not reflect the current attitudes of the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Commissioning editors: Maggie Finch and Matthew Martin

Editor: Paige Amor

Publications Manager: Jasmin Chua

Publications Assistant: Kathleen Burke

Photography: NGV Photographic Services, unless otherwise stated

Imaging Technician: Garry Sommerfeld and Nicholas Umek

Note to reader

Throughout its life the NGV’s scholarly journal has been published under various names as quarterly and annual editions: Quarterly Bulletin of the National Gallery of Victoria, 1945–58; Annual Bulletin of the National Gallery of Victoria, 1959–67; Art Bulletin of Victoria, 1967–2002; Art Bulletin of the National Gallery of Victoria, 2002–10.

In 2013, we began the process of republishing back issues of Art Journal as electronic editions with the aim of providing long-term access to quality scholarship about the NGV collection.

We would welcome your feedback and comments about this project: NGVPublishing@ngv.vic.gov.au

The electronic publication of the Art Journal of the National Gallery of Victoria is being made possible due to the generous ongoing support of The Vizard Foundation.