18 Jun 2011 - 09 Oct 2011
180 St Kilda Road
Akademie der bildenden Künste (Academy of Fine Arts) – Established in 1692 and relocated in 1877 to Neo-renaissance building on Schillerplatz. Conservative painting and sculpture academy where authoritarian painting master Christian Griepenkerl taught a generation of Secessionist artists including Egon Schiele and C.O. Czeschka. In 1907 and 1908 the Academy twice rejected the application of aspiring painter Adolf Hitler.
Allegorien, Neue Folge(Allegories, New Series) –Published 1895–1900 by Gerlach & Schenck. Set of prestige folio volumes featuring graphic reproductions by Secession artists Koloman Moser, Josef Engelhart, Carl Otto Czeschka and Gustav Klimt.
Allgemeine Österreichische Frauenverein (United Austrian Women’s Association) – Austria’s most radical feminist organisation when founded in 1893 by Auguste Fickert, Marie Lang and Rose Mayreder. Published Dokumente der Frauen (Women’s Documents) 1899-1902and Neues Frauenleben (New Woman’s Life) 1902-1918, both of which carried commentary on modern art and fashions.
Andere, Das – Full name Das Andere. Ein Blatt zur Einführung abendländischer Kultur in Österreich (The Other. A Magazine for the Introduction of Western Culture to Austria). Journal published from 1903 by Adolf Loos as a personal vehicle for his views on fashion, art, architecture and even table manners, carrying illustrated advertisements for businesses and products consistent with his theories. Copyright problems and a lack of readers cause his magazine to close in 1904 after just two issues.
Anbruch, Der (The New Beginning) – Full name Der Anbruch: Flugblätter aus der Zeit (The New Beginning: Topical Pamphlets). Monthly Viennese Expressionist journal containing woodcuts, drawings and lithographs. Edited by Otto Schneider, it existed between 1917-1922. Egon Schiele publishes a posthumous tribute to Klimt in der Anbruch’s third issue (February 1918).
Arbeiter Zeitung (Workers’ Newspaper)– Left-wing daily newspaper founded in 1889 by future Socialist leader Victor Adler (1852–1918). Mouthpiece of the Social Democratic Party with influential art criticism column by Arthur Roessler, Egon Schiele’s patron.
Arbeitsprogramm der Wiener Werkstätte (Work programme of the Wiener Werkstätte) – Manifesto of the Wiener Werkstätte written by Koloman Moser and Josef Hoffmann. Published first in Hohe Warte in 1904 and separately in 1905, in which equality between craftsman, sculptor and painter is declared.
Ashbee, Charles Robert (1863–1942) – English designer of the Arts and Crafts movement, inspired by John Ruskin and William Morris’s socialist model of co-operative work. Ashbee founded the Guild and School of Handicraft in 1888 (the model upon which the Wiener Werkstätte was based) as a means of promoting craft and alleviating the poverty of London’s East End. He also formed the Essex House Press in 1898 to carry on the work of Morris’s Kelmscott Press, closed a year earlier. Ashbee’s austerely sinuous metal forms were widely admired in the budding Viennese and German modern design movements.
Backhausen, Johann & Söhne – Viennese textiles manufacturer founded in 1849. Key supplier of Wiener Werkstätte fabrics and present-day holder of Werkstätte textiles archive.
Bahr, Hermann (1863–1934) – Austrian writer, playwright and art critic. Member and spokesman of the literary group Jung Wien and theatre critic for Neues Wiener Tageblatt. In 1894 Bahr co-founded Die Zeit. In 1894 Bahr co-founded the weekly magazine, Die Zeit. Described as the ‘theoretical mouthpiece of the Vienna Secession’, Bahr called in 1899 for the ‘large scale organization of art and the crafts combined’, leading some to credit him with the Werkstätte concept. An ally of Gustav Klimt, Bahr published the debate about Klimt’s allegedly obscene University paintings in a volume, Gegen Klimt, in 1903. Bahr was a target of Karl Kraus’s satirical journal Die Fackel.
Biedermeier – Northern European style of furniture and painting that emerged in reaction to French Empire style between 1815 and 1848. Named after a petit-bourgeois ‘everyman’ figure, the style was noted for its sentimental qualities. However, its adherence to principles of simplicity in shape and colour, purity of function and the inherent beauty of natural material won admirers among the modernists of the early twentieth century.
bronzit (also broncit) – Style of decoration introduced by Josef Hoffmann in which geometrical designs were painted in matt-black enamel on frosted glass.
Café Central – Located in an 1863 palace on Herrengasse. Famed for its association with bohemian ‘writer-in-residence’, Peter Altenberg. Also frequented by Adolf Loos, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Sigmund Freud, Vladimir Lenin, Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) and Adolf Hitler. The café was located in an 1863 ‘palace’ on Herrengasse designed by Heinrich von Ferstel for the Vienna stock market and wasdecorated, according to Altenberg, in haute-bourgeois style with ‘golden embossed English wallpaper’.
Café Griensteidl – Unofficial meeting place of Viennese avant-garde literary group, Jung Wien. Situated in the Palais Dietrichstein on Michaelerplatz until its demolition in 1899 to make way for the Neo-baroque Palais Herberstein, where it later re-opened. In the interim artists relocated to the Café Central.
Café Museum – Designed by Adolf Loos in 1899 and located on the corner of Friedrichstrasse and Operngasse, Karlsplatz. Conceived in response to the recent decorative Secession building by Olbrich nearby. Dubbed the ‘Café Nihilismus’ on account of its radically plain exterior and fittings.
Café Sperl –Popular among poets and artists, founded in Gumpendorferstrasse 11 (Sixth District) in 1880. Preferred meeting place of early Secessionists, including the Hagengesellschaft and the exclusive, design-oriented ‘Siebener Club’.
Christian Social Party – Mainstream political party founded in 1893 by Karl Lueger, oriented towards a Catholic bourgeoisie and rural audience. Increasingly nationalistic and anti-Semitic during Lueger’s terms as Vienna’s mayor between 1897 and 1910.
curtain wall (architectural) –Non load-bearing outer or enclosing wall, often of light-weight material. Analogous to the woven hangings that Gottfried Semper speculated served as walls for the earliest buildings. Otto Wagner brought renewed attention to the curtain wall and also to cladding with his use of aluminium, majolica tiles and glass exterior surfaces.
Darmstadt – Experimental artists’ community in Art Nouveau style founded in 1899 in Hesse, west central Germany, by Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse. Partly inspired by Ashbee’s Guild and School of Handicraft. Following the success of his 1898 Secession building, architect Joseph Maria Olbrich was invited by Ernst Ludwig to establish a colony of modern buildings in Darmstadt by a range of young designers including the talented Peter Behrens. The project was intended to regenerate artistic and economic activity in the state and became a forerunner of the German and Austrian Werkbunds.
Dekorative Kunst(Decorative Art) – Munich avant-garde art magazine, founded by Julius Meier-Graefe and published between 1897 and 1929, it promoted the Jugendstil or Art Nouveau style and the work of European designers such as Charles Robert Ashbee and William Morris. In 1899 Dekorative Kunst merged with Die Kunst fűr Alle.
Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration – Full name Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration: Illustrierte Monatsheft fűr Moderne Malerei, Plastik, Architektur, Wohnungskunst und kűnstlerische Frauenarbeiten (German Art and Decoration: Illustrated Monthly for Modern Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Interior Design and Artistic Women’s Work). Journal founded in 1897 by Alex Koch (1860-1939) and based in Darmstadt. Initially art nouveauin spirit, the magazine was the first to report on the activities of the Wiener Werkstȁtte, publishing 12 issues on its achievements between 1904 and 1911. It reproduced high quality photography of interiors, including features of the Gallia apartment, and fashion, such as the Attersee holiday photographs of Gustav Klimt with Emilie Flȍgein reform dress.
Dokumente der Frauen (Women’s Documents) (1899–1902) – Fortnightly journal established by the founders of the feminist group Allgemeine Österreichische Frauenverein. Supportive of the Secession, and revolutionary in tone, its contributors included Hermann Bahr, Adolf Loos and Berta Zuckerkandl. Leading forum for debates on reform dress.
Fachschule für Zeichnen und Malerei (Technical School for Drawing and Painting) – Section of the Kunstgewerbeschule directed by Ferdinand Laufburger (1829–1881) and attended by Gustav Klimt, Ernst Klimt and Franz Matsch. Through Laufburger the Klimt brothers and Matsch obtain commissions for the decoration of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
Fackel, Die (The Torch) –Satirical paper founded in 1899 by Karl Kraus that attacked corruption and the perceived hypocrisy of Viennese institutions, in particular the Neue Freie Presse. Running to 922 issues, it continued to appear, though increasingly sporadically, until the death of its main author Kraus in 1936.
Ferstel, Heinrich von (1828–1883) – Leading architect of historicist building projects in post-1848 Vienna, including the Neo-gothic Votivkirche (1856–79) and the Neo-renaissance Österreichsiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie (1871), today the Museum of Applied Arts (MAK).
Flächenkunst (art of the surface) – The graphic exercise in reducing elements of complex visual design to their flattest, two-dimensional essence. The principle could then be reversed and used to inspire three-dimensional objects of radical purity in variable media and scale. Die Fläche, published by Anton Schroll Verlag from 1902 was a loose-leaf portfolio collection conceived as an art object in its own right but also for use as a pattern book.
Founders’ Epoch see Gründerzeit
Frauenstimmrecht (women’s suffrage movement) – Feminist movement, mobilised by the founding in 1893 of the Allgemeine Österreichische Frauenverein (United Austrian Women’s Association). Activists included many leading supporters of the Secession, the Wiener Werkstätte and the reform dress design movement.
Fremden-Blatt(Foreigners’ Review) – Liberal daily Viennese paper founded in 1841. Closely linked to the liberal Austrian Crown Prince Rudolf and government circles through its owner, Julius Szeps. Ludwig Hevesi served as editor and art critic from 1875.
Galerie Miethke –Private Viennese gallery in Dorotheergasse founded in 1861 by Hugo (H. O.) Miethke and purchased in 1904 by Paul Bacher, a wealthy jeweller and friend of Gustav Klimt. Managed by painter Carl Moll as a forum for exhibiting Austrian art and advancing the commercial interests of Secession artists. In 1905 the gallery acquired an exhibition space designed by Hoffmann in Graben where it exhibited Wiener Werkstätte work but also foreign artists such as Manet, Cézanne, Picasso and Gauguin. Moll’s perceived conflict of interest as president of a non-commercial Secession and this profit-oriented gallery caused the rift between more conservative Secession members and the ‘Klimt group’.
k.k. Gartenbau-Gesellschaft (Imperial and Royal Horticultural Society) – Large venue on Parkring, central Vienna. Rented venue of the first Secession exhibition, on 26 March 1898.
Gebrüder Thonet (Thonet brothers) –Viennese family firm founded in 1849 to market bentwood furniture produced with a pioneering steaming process invented by Michael Thonet in 1841. While its earlier Biedermeier designs were admired by Secession designers and Adolf Loos, Thonet and its later rival, J&J Kohn, also produced furniture to new, modernist designs.
Gedeckte Tisch, Der (Set Table) – 1906 Wiener Werkstätte exhibition on the theme of the set table. The exhibition inaugurated a new showroom that had opened at the Werkstȁtte’s Neufstiftgasse premises and displayed around sixty settings by Hoffmann and others, demonstrating the principle of combined aesthetics and practicality.
Gerlach, Martin (1846–1918) – Berlin based publisher of high quality iconographic and scientific reference works who moved to Vienna in 1874 with the support of the emperor. Described by Joseph August Lux as a ‘leader of the modern trend’, Gerlach engaged emerging talents such as Carl Otto Czeschka, and the brothers Ernst and Gustav Klimt in multi-artist projects such as the Allegorien, Neue Folge (1895-1900).The company formed partnerships with Schenck (1882), Wiedling (1904) and Martin Gerlach junior. In 1901 it embarked on its successful children’s book series Gerlachs Jugendbücherei. Koloman Moser and Klimt first met in the offices of Gerlach and Schenck in 1896.
Gerlachs Jugendbücherei –Landmark luxury children’s book series produced by Martin Gerlach and illustrated by leading graphic artists from the Hagenbund and also Carl Otto Czeschka from the decoratively oriented Stilisten group.
Gesamtkunstwerk (total work of art) – concept borrowed from Baroque and Wagnerian theatrical traditions, in which all aesthetic elements are subordinated to the whole effect. In practice this concept undermined established hierarchies within the arts and privileged collaborative models of creativity over individual authorship.
Gesellschaft bildender Künstler Österreichs(Austrian Artists’ Society) –see Künstlerhaus-Genossenschaft
Gitterwerk (latticework) – a distinctive genre of metal objects produced by the Wiener Werkstätte, manufactured from sheet metal and perforated by a grid pattern of incised squares.
Glasgow Four – Avant-garde group of Scottish architects and designers invited to exhibit at the 1900 Vienna Secession exhibition on account of their spare Art Nouveau style revealing Japanese influences. Comprised architect and designer Charles Rennie Mackintosh and his wife Margaret Macdonald and J. Herbert MacNair and his wife Frances Macdonald (sister of Margaret Macdonald).
Graben – Expensive shopping street in the First District. Galerie Miethke had premises there. Loos designed several shops and a public lavatory block on Graben.
Grafische Lehr- und Versuchsansalt (Institute for Teaching and Research in Graphic Arts) —Founded in 1888 under the direction of Josef Maria Ede and located at Westbahnstrasse 25 (Seventh District) the institute provided technical training in graphic arts, book illustration and photography, producing, among others, the designer Jutta Sika.
Gründerzeit (Founders’ Epoch) – Prosperous decades preceding stock market crash of 1873. Associated with the industrial revolution of Central Europe and widespread classical liberalism. The widespread taste for early classical architectural forms in building gave rise to Gründerzeitstil, also referred to as ‘historicism’.
Gründerzeitstil (Founders’ Epoch style) – A decorative nineteenth-century building style evoking classical and Renaissance architecture. Gründerzeitstil technically refers to the Gründerzeit, i.e. 1850–73, but is sometimes also used more widely to denote historically inspired architecture between 1873 and 1914.
Guild and School of Handicraft – Utopian experiment by designer Charles Robert Ashbee to raise standards of craftsmanship but also the conditions of working men, through arrangements for self-government and profit sharing. First opened at Toynbee Hall, East London, in 1888, specialising in metalwork, jewellery, enamels, wrought copper and ironwork and furniture.
Hagenbund (Hagen Alliance) –Group formed in 1900 that included Naturalist artist Heinrich Leffler and architect Joseph Urban, who resigned from the Künstlerhaus with the Klimt group in 1897. ArtNouveau in spirit and tending towards illustrative work, their work was more affordable and accessible than that of the Secessionists, although the Expressionists Anton Hanak, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele would later exhibit with them. Between 1910 and 1912 the Hagenbund held independent exhibitions in the Zedlitzhalle.
Hagengesellschaft (Hagen Society) – Loose circle of artists who met from 1880 at the café Zum blauen Freihaus (owned by Leopold Haagen), later moving to Café Sperl. In 1897 twelve of its members were involved in the founding of the Secession including Adolf Böhm, Josef Engelhart, Friedrich König, Johan Viktor Krämer, Maximilien Lenz, Carl Müller, Alfred Roller and Ernst Stöhr. The remaining members formed the separate and independently exhibiting Hagenbund in 1900.
Hevesi, Ludwig (1843–1910) – Pseudonym for Ludwig Hirsch, a Hungarian-born Jewish art critic and prolific writer who suicided in 1910. Hevesi became associate editor of the Fremden-Blatt art department. Powerful advocate of Gustav Klimt and author of Secessionist slogan ‘To the time its art; to art its freedom’.
historicism (architectural term) – The evocation of previous periods in building through eclectic use of ornament. Often used interchangeably with Gründerzeitstil (1850-1873). Associated with the heavily decorative architecture of the Ringstrasse. Viennese modernists rejected historicist style on the basis of its bourgeois imitation of grand and outmoded forms.
Hohe Warte (Look-out Tower) – Scenic Vienna suburb. In 1898 Joseph Maria Olbrich intended to build a utopian artists' colony on open land at Hohe Warte. With Olbrich’s departure for Darmstadt in 1898 the project passed to fellow Wagner student, Josef Hoffmann. Between 1900 and 1911 Hoffmann completed eight related houses, combining Biedermeier and Arts and Crafts elements for fellow artists, Carl Moll, Kolo Moser, the amateur photographers Hugo Henneberg and Friedrich Spitzer, and a small number of wealthy Secession patrons.
Hohe Warte – Influential journal founded in 1904 by Catholic modernist Joseph August Lux with focus on Jugendstil architecture. Printed contributions by Secession and Kunstgewerbe artists such as Koloman Moser. In early 1908 Hohe Warte becomes the official publication of the recently founded Bund Deutscher Architekten.
Interieur, Das (The Interior) – Full name Das Interieur: Wiener Monatshefte fűr angewandte Kunst I (The Interior: Viennese Monthly Paper for Applied Art I). Preeminent Viennese design monthlyfeaturing commercial and domestic interiors by leading architects and designers of the day, such as the Gallia apartment and the colony at Hohe Warte by Josef Hoffmann. Established in 1900 by Ludwig Abels and Joseph August Lux, founder of Hohe Warte and published by Kunstverlag Anton Schroll & Co.
Jugendstil (Youth style) – German and Austrian version of the anti-academic French and Belgian 1890s Art Nouveau movementin which the organic curving forms of Art Nouveau are supplemented by more geometric elements. Named after the Munich magazine Jugend, which promoted it. The style retains close links with graphic art and typography.
Jung Wien (Young Vienna) – Group described as the literary equivalent of the Secession. Aesthetically inclined towards Symbolism and Impressionism over Naturalism. Members included Hermann Bahr, Peter Altenberg, Richard Beer-Hofmann, Karl Kraus, Arthur Schnitzler, Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Stefan Zweig. Jung Wien gathered at the Café Griensteidl and other cafés and at the celebrated weekly salons of critic Berta Zuckerkandl.
Junge Wilden (Young Savages) – The first generation of Expressionist artists including painter Richard Gerstl and Oskar Kokoschka, who was dubbed an Oberwilding or ‘super savage’.
k.k. – kaiserlich und königlich (imperial and royal). Imprimature of the Habsburg Court of Austria-Hungary.
Kleeblatt Gruppe, Das (Cloverleaf Group) – Also called the Trifolium Gruppe. Subset of the Vienna Camera Club formed in 1897 comprising Heinrich Kühn, Hugo Henneberg and Hans Watzek, who jointly developed techniques for greater control of tonal and chromatic range, the results of which they exhibited at the Vienna Secession.
Klimt Gruppe (Klimt Group) – See the Stilisten
Klimt Kollectiv – Special monographic exhibition of Klimt’s work held as the Eighteenth Secession Exhibition, in 1903, featuring eighty works, including the Beethoven frieze, University paintings and portraits of Emilie Flöge and Hermine Gallia.
Kohn, J & J. – Jacob and Josef Kohn. Rival company to Gebrüder Thonet in manufacture of bentwood furniture. The Kohns' production of furniture designed by Gustav Siegel in 1900 won the approval and later cooperation of leading architects such as Wagner, Loos and Hoffmann.
Kraus, Karl (1874–1936) – Journalist, satirist and poet. Born into a wealthy Jewish family, Kraus joined Jung Wien in 1896 but quickly rejected it. An anti-Zionist, in 1899 Kraus renounced Judaism and in the same year established a polemical paper, Die Fackel and also wrote for papers such as the Wiener Rundschau. A charismatic public lecturer, he denounced historicism, liberalism, ornament and careless use of language while championing the austere works of Arnold Schoenberg, Adolf Loos and Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Arts and Crafts) – Established in 1867. The school came to offer a wide range of practical subjects taught by leading Secessionist artists and designers. Now Universität für angewandte Kunst (University of Applied Arts). Established in 1867 under the administration of Rudolf von Eitelberger, Director of the Austrian Ősterreichsiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie. Housed by 1873 in a Neo-Renaissance building on Stubenring. Von Eitelberger was succeeded in 1897 by Arthur von Scala, who appointed Secession painter Felician von Myrbach head of the school in 1899. The School came to offer a wide range of practical subjects taught by leading Secessionist artists and designers. Re-named in 1948 Akademie für angewandte Kunst (Academy of Applied Arts or MAK).
Künstler Compagnie (Painters’ Company) – Successful business formed in 1882 by Gustav and Ernst Klimt and Franz Matsch (1861–1942) to supply decorative paintings and murals for luxury interiors and public Ringstrasse projects. The company’s close links with society painter and Imperial favourite, Hans Makart, secured it prestigious commissions following his death.
Künstlerhaus (Artists’ House) – Exhibition building built in 1868 on Karlspatz in a neo-Renaissance Ringstrasse villa. Home of the Künstlerhaus-Genossenschaft (Austrian Artists’ Society), also known as the Gesellschaft bildender Künstler Österreichs. The Künstlerhaus was the only venue for the exhibition of contemporary art in Vienna. A commercial enterprise, its organisers favoured conservative art.
Künstlerhaus-Genossenschaft (Austrian Artists’ Society) – Private exhibiting society formed in 1861 under the presidency of architect August Siccard von Siccardsburg, to which most established artists belonged. Also known as the Gesellschaft bildender Künstler Österreichs. On 22 May 1897 its committee passed a motion of censure against the artists of the newly formed Secession led by Gustav Klimt, triggering their resignation.
Künstlerwerkstätten(Artists’ Workshops) – Workshops created in 1916 by Fritz Wärndorfer and Josef Hoffmann for artists without studios or means, aimed at creating new markets in the fields of ceramics, wood and ivory products, endpaper production, lace, enamel work, embroidery, beadwork, glass, fabric and wallpaper designs.
Kunstschau (Art Show) – Exhibitions staged in 1908 and 1909 by the Österreichischer Künstlerbund (Austrian Artists’ Association) headed by Gustav Klimt. The first exhibition, coinciding with the sixtieth anniversary of the emperor’s reign, was conceived as a Gesamtkunstwerk of contemporary Viennese art; the second exhibition was international in scope, introducing recent German, French, Belgian and Dutch art.
Kunstwollen (‘The will to art’) – Concept developed by Alois Riegl positing art as an expressive individual or collective response to the conditions of an age. This is in opposition to Gottfried Semper’s notion that cultural forms evolve in direct response to functional needs within societies in combination with available materials and techniques.
Lobmeyr – Viennese glass manufacturing firm used by Wiener Werkstätte.
Lueger, Karl (1844–1910) – Mayor of Vienna and founder of the Christian Social Party. Populist and anti-semitic, Lueger was also a great moderniser, instrumental in continuing the major building and engineering projects of Vienna after the crash of 1873. A supporter of the Secession, he made available the site for their purpose-built exhibition building on Friedrichstrasse completed in 1898.
Lux, Joseph August (1871–1947) – Catholic modernist architectural critic, founder and editor of the journal Das Interieur in 1900 and Hohe Warte in 1904, co-founder of the German Werkbund and author of biographies on Josef Hoffmann and Otto Wagner.
Makart, Hans (1840–1884) – Painter, designer and decorator associated with Vienna’s Ringstrasse period and also professor at Akademie der bildenden Künste. The immensely popular ‘Makartstil’ or Makart style is characterised by a pompous elegance with erotic overtones. Makart, who was also Professor at the Vienna Academy, greatly influenced Gustav and Ernst Klimt and Franz Matsch whom he later directed as the Künstler Compagnie in the decorations for the imperial silver jubilee in 1879.
MAK see Österreichsiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie
Malercompagnie see Künstler Compagnie
Meier-Graefe, Julius (1867–1935) – German novelist, art critic and dealer. Founder of the Art Nouveau magazine Dekorative Kunst in 1897. Dealer for sculptor George Minne. Conception of the Wiener Werkstätte attributed to Meier-Graefe by Koloman Moser (though attributed by others to Hermann Bahr).
Muthesius, Hermann (1861–1921) – Berlin architect, diplomat and author who introduced the Arts and Crafts movement to Germany. A contributing author to Dekorative Kunst, Muthesius wrote on Mackintosh’s Willow Tea Rooms and was a lifelong advocate of English domestic architecture and garden design.He was later instrumental in setting up the German Werkbund with its emphasis on quality, quantity and judicious use of new technologies. A spiritual father of the Austrian Werkbund and the German Bauhaus.
Myrbach, Baron Felician von (1853–1940) – Professor of illustration at the Kunstgewerbeschule, where he served as director between 1899 and 1905. Myrbach and Arthur von Scala appointed Josef Hoffmann, Alfred Roller, Koloman Moser and Carl Otto Czeschka to the school’s teaching staff. In 1903 Myrbach became president of the Vienna Secession, but left in 1905 along with Klimt and his circle.
Naturalisten (Naturalists) – Also called the ‘Impressionists’. Faction of the Secession led by painter and Hagengesellschaft member Joseph Englehart favouring traditional approaches to painting. In 1905 they rejected proposals of the Stilisten for the integration of applied arts on an equal footing with painting and sculpture. The Naturalisten also protested at the commercial opportunities of the Stilisten via their links with the Wiener Werkstätte and the Galerie Miethke and the conflicting interests of Carl Moll in his dual role as Secession President and gallery director. The dispute led to the schism that ended the original Secession.
Neue Freie Presse (New Free Press) –Founded in 1864. The most literary of the Viennese daily newspapers, featuring writers such as Theodor Herzl and Julius Korngold (music). Loos won international recognition through articles published in the Neue Freie Presse between 1897 and 1899.
Neukunstgruppe (New Art Group) – Artist group founded in 1909 by young rebels from the Academy of Fine Arts including Egon Schiele, Anton Peschka, Karl Massmann, Anton Faistauer, Franz Wiegele, Rudolf Kalvach, Albert Paris von Gütersloh and Hans Böhler. Their manifesto written by Schiele called for the complete autonomy of the artist. They exhibited at the Gustav Pisko Galerie, Vienna, in December 1909 as the ‘Neukünstler’.
Neukünstler – see Neukunstgruppe
Neues Wiener Journal (New Vienna Daily) – Daily Viennese newspaper founded in 1839 with art column by Berta Zuckerkandl.
Nutzstil (functional style) – Otto Wagner’s theory that outward form should be a natural product of construction and that materials should be appropriately selected and employed.
Ornament und Verbrechen(Ornament and Crime) — 1908 essay by Adolf Loos translated into English in 1913 attacking the perceived excess of Art Nouveau design. Borrowing concepts from Darwin’s theory of evolution, Loos proposed that ‘the evolution of culture is synonymous with the removal of ornament from objects of daily use’. Arguing that ornament applied to useful objects inevitably goes out of fashion, rendering the object itself obsolete he condemned the waste of both object and the time invested in its making as immoral. Loos further likened surface decoration to tattoos on a tribesman or criminal, which he denounced as uncivilised and unevolved because of its origin in a primal erotic impulse. Declaring, however, that ‘all art is erotic’, he advocated instead the controlled sublimation of the erotic impulse into the production of utilitarian objects of extreme economy but made from the best materials and exquisitely finished.
Österreichischer Künstlerbund (Austrian Artists’ Association) – Group led by Gustav Klimt that formed after the 1905 split from the Secession, which included Josef Hoffmann, Otto Wagner, Alfred Roller and Carl Moll. Its declared aim was to seek influence beyond exhibitions through the integration of art with everyday life.
Österreichsiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie (Austrian Museum for Art and Industry) – Established in 1863 by Emperor Franz Josef in emulation of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. Through its director, Rudolf von Eitelberger, the museum is intimately linked to the ‘Vienna School’ of art history. In 1948 it was renamed the Österreichisches Museum fűr angewandte Kunst (Austrian Museum of Applied Arts) or ‘MAK’.
Pisko Galerie – Owned by Gustav Pisko who, in December 1909, held an exhibition of Schiele and fellow members of the Neukunstgruppe at his premises in Schwarzenbergplatz.
Reformkleider (reform dress) – Revolutionary dress style that coincided with the Frauenstimmrecht, or women’s suffrage movement. Based on the principle of freedom from physical restraint, the fashion rejected corsetry or constricting shapes in favour of loose, flowing forms. The kaftan was adopted by limited numbers of men in progressive and artistic circles, such as Gustav Klimt and Hermann Bahr, while a long gown with empire bust line was popularized by the Schwestern Flöge from 1904 and the Wiener Werkstätte from 1911.
Riegel, Alois (1858–1905) – Austrian art historian, theorist and member of the influential Vienna School of Art History. In 1886 he was appointed textiles curator of the Österreichsiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie. One of the most influential advocates of formalism and the concept ‘Kunstwollen’.
Ringstrasse – Broad street encircling the inner city of Vienna, built between 1858 and 1913 in the footprint of the recently demolished medieval city wall. Conceived as a grandiose necklace of public and residential buildings, with facades emulating Renaissance, Gothic, Roman and Hellenic architectural styles. Key architects associated with this ‘historicist’ project are Heinrich von Ferstel, Theophil Hansen, Friedrich Schmidt, Gottfried Semper, Carl Hasenauer, August von Siccardsburg and a young Otto Wagner. Rejecting entirely the Ringstrasse’s dependence on borrowed forms, Adolf Loos in 1898 condemned it as ‘Potemkin’s Town’.
Sachlichkeit – Scientific objectivity or ‘realism’. An ideal shared by functionalist architects Adolf Loos and Otto Wagner in which objects were created on a non-decorative, purely functional basis, favouring simplicity and efficiency in regard to materials and processes.
Scala, Arthur von (1845–1909) – Director of the Österreichsiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie. Von Scala was instrumental in the appointment Otto Wagner, Baron Felician von Myrbach, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann and Alfred Roller to work in his museum and at the Kunstgewerbeschule.
Schwestern Flöge – Avant-garde women’s fashion house established in 1904 by Emilie, Helene and Pauline Flöge, relatives by marriage to Gustav Klimt. Located on the first floor of Casa Piccola in the Mariahilferstrasse fashion district, with an interior designed by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser. Specialising in Reformkleider and Parisian haute couture, Schwestern Flöge remained commercially successful until the Anschluss in 1938.
Secession – Vereinigung bildender Künstler Österreichs (Association of Austria’s Fine and Graphic Artists). Breakaway movement of artists from the Künstlerhaus on 3 April 1897. Derived from the Latin phrase secessio plebis (the withdrawal of the people in times of poor government). Led by Gustav Klimt, the group, which included members of the Siebener Club and the Hagengesellschaft, simultaneously declared its independence from the conservative academic teaching of the Akademie der Bildenden Kunst and the similarly conservative and commercial tendencies of the Künstlerhaus. Klimt was elected its first president. Its highly successful first exhibition was held at the k.k Gartenbau-Gesellschaft in March 1898. Fifty-seven thousand people attended, 218 exhibited works were sold and a profit of 7,716 kronen was made, helping to finance the creation of a purpose-built Secession building in the following year.
Secession building – The exhibition building of the Secessionists built in 1898 to the design of Josef Maria Olbrich on a block of land in Friedrichstrasse near the Karlskirche, made available free of rent for ten years by the city of Vienna. Built within a year, it featured movable internal walls while its exterior was a matrix of white cubic units, with applied golden tracery surmounted by an open metalwork sphere of golden laurels. Home of Ver Sacrum offices. The building cost 120,000 kronen, a sum raised in part by the artists who waived their own fees. Karl Wittgenstein was reputed to have contributed ‘most of the necessary funds singlehanded’, and the Province of Lower Austria gave 40,000 kronen.
Semper, Gottfried (1803–1879) – German architect, theorist and political radical of 1848. Semper’s Ringstrasse projects exemplify his historicist use of Renaissance and classical styles, later unpopular among modernist designers. Semper nevertheless appealed to modernists for his use of anthropology to prove that architecture arises from practical needs common to humankind, a functionalist view influencing Otto Wagner and his followers.
Siebener Klub (Club of Seven) – the key members of the Stilisten. Founded in 1895 by Josef Hoffmann, the club, which met at the Café Sperl, included future Secessionists Koloman Moser, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil, Otto Wagner and Josef Urban.
Sommerfrische (summer break) – Austrian tradition of summer holidays in the Salzkammergut, an area of mountains and lakes beloved by Vienna’s affluent classes. Gustav Klimt, Carl Moll and their circle regularly met while on Sommerfrische. Klimt summered at Attersee seventeen times between 1900 and 1916.
Stilisten (Stylists) – Also called the ‘Klimt Gruppe’. Faction within the Secession centred on Gustav Klimt, oriented to design and applied arts including Josef Maria Auchentaller, Wilhelm Bernatzik, Adolf Böhm, Adolf Hölzel, Josef Hoffmann, W. Franz Jäger, Max Kurzweil, Wilhelm List, Richard Luksch, Franz Metzner, Carl Moll, Emil Orlik, Alfred Roller and Otto Wagner. The aims of the Stilisten would eventually come into conflict with those of the Naturalisten led by Josef Engelhart.
Studio, The – Influential English periodical of fine and applied art published from 1893 and edited by Charles Holmes. Said to have 20,000 subscribers in Germany alone. Widely read by Secession members for news on recent artistic trends in Britain and Europe.
Sturm, der (The Storm) –First and most significant German Expressionist magazine founded in 1910 in Berlin by Herwarth Walden, published weekly and then monthly from 1914.Illustrated by OskarKokoschka. In March 1912 Walden opened a gallery of the same name.
University paintings — Also called the ‘Faculty paintings’. Series of paintings commissioned in 1894 by the University of Vienna from Gustav Klimt for the ceiling of its great hall. The vertical canvases dedicated to the themes of Philosophy, Medicine and Jurisprudence appeared at the Secession in 1900, 1901 and 1903 respectively, where they provoked outraged among critics and Faculty members for their perceived obscenity. Klimt returned his fees to the university and the pictures were acquired by his supporters. Stored in Schloss Immendorf during World War II, they were destroyed in 1945 when the castle was burned down by retreating German forces.
Vereinigung bildender Künstler Österreichs(Association of Austria’s Fine and Graphic Artists) – see Secession
Ver Sacrum (Sacred Spring) –short-lived but outstanding journal of the Viennese Jugendstil movement, produced by Secession members from 1898 to 1903. First published by Gerlach und Schenck in 1898, then E.A. Seeman of Leipzig between 1899 and 1900. Ver Sacrum was intended to disseminateinformation and examples of recent artistic developments. Unique for its experimental graphic design, illustrations and advertisements. The journal was monthly until 1899, financed by private backers paying a premium subscription rate, then bi-monthly from January 1900 ‘in order to react more quickly to current events’. Self-published from this date, it was circulated internally to members of the Vienna Secession only.
Vienna School of Art History – A famous and still-influential approach to art history, emerging in 1850s Vienna that sought to detach art historical judgments from issues of aesthetic preference and subjective taste by the introduction of scientific method. According to this method visual forms and functions of objects should be methodically observed (connoisseurship) and rigorously analysed in the context of other related cultural phenomena. Pioneered by Rudolf Eitelberger, professor of Art History at the University of Vienna, and Director of the Museum of Art and Industry, where he insisted on object-based teaching, Eitelberger’s influential followers included Franz Wickhoff and Alois Riegl, who also combined academic careers with object-based curatorial work.
Wärndorfer, Fritz (1868–1939) – Son of a wealthy Jewish textile manufacturer and enthusiast for modern English and Scottish design, Wärndorfer was an early patron of Secessionist artists and co-founder and financial backer of the Wiener Werkstätte. In 1907 Waerndorfer took over the commission for the Cabaret Fledermaus, following the financial collapse of its first backer. By 1914 Wärndorfer was himself bankrupted by his support of the Werkstätte and forced to leave for America.
Wage, Die (The Venture) – Literary journal founded in 1898 by liberal Jewish journalist Rudolf Lothar. Contributors included Adolf Loos and Josef Hoffmann.
Werkbund (Work Federation, Austrian) – Collaborative association of 178 artists, designers, private industries and public institutions formed in 1912 in emulation of the German Werkbund with the purpose of demonstrating the potential for collaborations between art and machine technology. Created during a public meeting headed by Josef Hoffmann and Alfred Roller at the Ősterreichsiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, backers included Moriz and Hermine Gallia. Josef Hoffmann designed the Austrian Werkbund’s pavilion at the German Werkbund’s Cologne exhibition of 1914.
Werkbund (Work Federation, German) – Federation of artists, architects, designers and industrialists founded by Joseph August Lux, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Josef Hoffmann, Peter Behrens, Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Munich in 1907. Influenced by the progressive theories of Hermann Muthesius, the Werkbund aspired to unite artists, architects and craftsmen with industrial technologies in order to improve Germany’s competitive footing with England and the USA.
Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung (Vienna General Newspaper)–Liberal daily paper founded in 1880 by Theodor Hertzka and later run by Julius Szeps. Featured a regular art column by Berta Zuckerkandl, Secession supporter and sister of Szeps.
Wiener Camera Club (Vienna Camera Club) – Founded in 1867 as the Club der Amateur Photographen in Vienna. Renamed Wiener Camera Club in 1893, at which time it had 277 members. The club’s commitment to controlling the mechanical medium of photography through craft produced photographs analogous to Impressionist painting.
Wiener Keramik (Viennese Ceramics) – Ceramics company founded in 1906 by potter Michael Powolny and painter Berthold Loeffler. In 1907 its sales and distribution were taken over by the Wiener Werkstätte. As the Wiener Keramik’s original purist and modestly priced items were soon found to be unmarketable, they were replaced with richly ornamented and sentimental figurines. Prominently displayed in the Wiener Werkstätte showrooms these alternative novelty objects were to enjoy commercial success.
Wiener Kunst im Hause (Viennese Art in the Home) – Group formed in 1900 of past students of Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser from the Kunstegewerbeschule. Wiener Kunst im Hause staged displays of contemporary Austrian-designed domestic items and furnishings at prestigious exhibitions between 1900 and 1904. Their success encouraged the formation in 1903 of the Wiener Werkstätte.
Wiener Rundschau Zeitschrift für Kultur und Kunst (Vienna Review: Newspaper for Culture and Art) – A quarterly review edited by Constantin Christomanos and Felix Rappaport, running for five issues between 1896 and 1901, with contributions by critics Karl Kraus, Adolf Loos, Berta Zuckerkandl and Oscar Wilde.
Wiener Werkstätte – Progressive alliance of artists and designers founded in 1903 and linked to the Vienna Secession. Established by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser with financial backing from businessman Fritz Wärndorfer. The Werkstätte aspired to enhance life through functional and decorative objects of outstanding design and hand-craftsmanship. It further aimed to raise the status of the craftsman to that of the artist and to orchestrate all artistic endeavours into a single unity, the Gesamtkunstwerk. The Werkstätte eventually expanded to include graphics, metalwork, leatherwork, bookbinding, woodworking, glass, ceramic, painting, dressmaking and textiles workshops. Although its financial situation was always precarious, the Werkstätte had many national and international retail outlets at various times and survived until 1932.
Zedlitzhalle – Exhibition venue adapted in 1902 from a market hall by Hagenbund architect Josef Urban.
Zeit, Die (The Times) –Viennese weekly paper for politics, economics, science and art. Co-founded in 1894 by the writer Heinrich Kanner, economist Isidore Singer and literary and art critic Hermann Bahr, who also edited it. Regarded as revolutionary for its refusal to cater to bourgeois ‘taste’. Die Zeit’s premises became a meeting place for intellectual such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Arthur Schnitzler, Hermann Hesse, Oscar Wilde, Leo Tolstoy, and Henrik Ibsen. Adolf Loos published in Die Zeit. In 1902 die Zeit increases its distribution to twice daily and in the same yearOtto Wagner designs the façade for its telegraph or dispatch bureau in Käntnerstrasse 32.
Zuckerkandl, Berta (1864–1945) née Szeps – Art critic who wrote for the Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung, Dokumente der Frauen and Ver Sacrum. Described by Karl Kraus as ‘the puppeteer of the Viennese cultural scene’. One of three chief propagandists for the Secession, along with Hermann Bahr and Ludwig Hevesi. Born into a family of journalists, her father, Moritz Szeps was editor-in-chief of the Neues Wiener Tageblatt and her brother Julius ran the Fremden-Blatt, and Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung. Zuckerkandl pursued liberal policies, social reform and stronger relations with France. She held a celebrated weekly salon in the Palais Lieben-Auspitz at Oppolzergasse 6 on the Ringstrasse. Regular attendees included Mahler, Klimt, writers of the Jung Wien group, and members of the science community through her husband Emil Zuckerkandl, an eminent anatomist.
Zum blauen Freihaus – Café-restaurant on Gumpendorferstrasse owned by Leopold Haagen. Meeting place of Secession architects and designers and Hagenbund members.