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Facts & Figures

Who's Who?

Family Connections

Eugène de Beauharnais (1781–1824) was the son of Rose, Vicomtesse de Beauharnais (Josephine) from her first marriage to Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais, who was executed during the Reign of Terror. Eugène became the stepson of Napoleon, ably commanding the Army of Italy. His titles included Viceroy of Italy and Hereditary Grand Duke of Frankfurt.

Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846) was the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. He married Hortense de Beauharnais, (10 April 1783 – 5 October 1837) daughter of Josephine and stepdaughter of Napoleon. They would reign as King and Queen of Holland between 1806 and 1810. Their son was Napoleon III.

Elisa Bonaparte (1777–1820) was the younger sister of Napoleon Bonaparte. She was the only sister with real political power as Princess of Piombino and Lucca and Grand Duchess of Tuscany.

Caroline Murat (1782–1839) was the younger sister of Napoleon Bonaparte. She married Joachim Murat (1767–1815), a dashing cavalry officer under Napoleon who became King of Naples.

Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was made the King of Westphalia, a realm created by Napoleon from the north-western states of Germany.

Joseph Bonaparte (1768–1844) was the older brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon made him King of Spain, from 1808 to 1813.

Marie-Louise of Austria (1791–1847) was the second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and therefore the second Empress of France (between 1810 and 1814). She would later become ruler of Parma, Piacenza and Guastella until her death. She bore Napoleon his only son; Napoleon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte (1811–1832). As the only legitimate son of Napoleon, he was the successor to Napoleon’s Empire and was titled as Napoleon II. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 21.

Maria-Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte (1750–1836) was the mother of Napoleon Bonaparte. She was given the title Madame Mère after Napoleon was crowned Emperor.

Other Significant Figures

Dominique-Vivant Denon (1747–1825) was the Minister of Arts under Napoleon Bonaparte. He was appointed the first director of the Louvre in 1804.

Raza Roustam (1783–1845) was Napoleon Bonaparte’s famous Mameluke bodyguard. At age 13, Raza was kidnapped and sold into slavery in Cairo. He was presented to Napoleon in 1799 by the Sheikh of Cairo, and was his bodyguard until 1814 when Napoleon was sent into exile.

Pope Pius VII (1742–1823) was present at Napoleon Bonaparte’s coronation in 1804. He formed a treaty with Napoleon, but Emperor and Pope always remained in conflict. The Pope did not approve of Napoleon’s second marriage, believing that his first was still valid.

Nicolas Francois, Count Mollien (1758–1850) was a French financier. He was appointed Councillor of State (Minister of the Treasury) under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806. His effective economic polices earned him the title of Count in 1808.

Charles Percier (1764–1838) was a Neoclassical architect, known for creating major buildings and objects in the Directoire and Empire style during Napoleon Bonaparte’s reign. He worked so closely with Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine (1762–1853) that it was often difficult to distinguish between their work.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754–1838) was a French diplomat. Despite the volatile political climate during this period in French history he was able to successfully influence and work under Louis XVI, Napoleon, Louis XVIII, Charles X and Louis-Philippe.

Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794) was a talented lawyer and skilled orator who rose to power during the tumultuous events of the French Revolution. He became one of the most influential figures during the Reign of Terror, sending thousands of suspected counter-revolutionaries to their death by guillotine. He was executed in 1794.

Georges-Jacques Danton (1759–1794) was a lawyer and influential leader during the early stages of the French Revolution, known for his passionate speeches urging fellow citizens to march against the monarchy. He became the first President of the Committee of Public Safety. This committee of individuals was given broad superior powers over the military, law courts and legislature during the unstable period after the arrest of the King. Danton was eventually executed under the jurisdiction of this same committee for opposing the extreme measures of the Reign of Terror.

Jaques Necker (1732–1804) was the French treasurer under Louis XVI. He was blamed for the failure of the Estates-General and spiraling economic crisis. The King sacked him in 1789, provoking anger among the Commons and the storming of the Bastille. He was re-appointed on 19 July 1789 after the fall of the Bastille.

Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) was a French aristocrat who served as a major general in the Continental army under George Washington. He returned to France a hero and champion of strong legislative reforms. He strongly advocated in favour of a Constitutional Monarchy, affirming his popularity among the Commons and bourgeoisie. He later lost favour due to his support for the monarchy after the King attempted to escape to Varennes.  He was imprisoned in Austria in 1797. After the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814–15, he commanded the National Guard until 1830, working towards establishing the ascendency of Louis-Philippe.

Camille Desmoulins (1760–1794) was a journalist and politician who played an important role in the French Revolution. He is most famous for rousing the crowds before the Storming of the Bastille in July 1789. He worked with Danton and was elected into the National Assembly as a moderate Jacobin. He was critical of the radical views of Robespierre and was sent to the guillotine in April 1794.

  • Daniel SAINT (decorator)
    French 1778-1847
    Pierre-André MONTAUBAN (goldsmith)
    France active 1800-20
    Portrait of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, box (Portrait de Louis Bonaparte, Roi de Hollande, boîte)
    Empire period 1804-15
    watercolour and gouache on ivory, gold, enamel
    1.9 x 6.5 x 9.5 cm (closed)
    Fondation Napoléon, Paris
    Donation Lapeyre (inv. 1098)
    © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin Berthier
    (MANUFACTURE DE NAST, Paris) (manufacturer)
    France 1783-1835
    Italy 1735-
    Cup and saucer with a portrait of Elisa Bonaparte (Tasse et soucoupe, portrait d’Elisa Bonaparte) (c. 1810)
    porcelain (hard-paste)
    (a) 12.0 cm height (cup); (b) 15.0 cm diameter (saucer)
    Fondation Napoléon, Paris
    Donation Lapeyre (inv. 795)
    © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin Berthier
  • Philip-Heinrick DUNKER
    German 1780-1836
    Portrait of Caroline Murat, Queen of Naples (Portrait de Caroline Murat, reine de Naples) Empire period 1804-15
    watercolour and gouache
    19.5 x 15.2 cm
    Fondation Napoléon, Paris
    Donation Lapeyre (inv. 726)
    © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin Berthier
  • Salvatore NASTI (decorator)
    Italy active (early 19th century)
    Pierre-André MONTAUBAN (goldsmith)
    France active 1800-20
    Portrait of Joachim Murat, King of Naples, box (Portrait de Joachim Murat, Roi de Naples, boîte) 1815
    watercolour and gouache on ivory, gold, enamel
    1.9 x 8.8 x 5.6 cm (closed)
    Fondation Napoléon, Paris
    Donation Lapeyre (inv. 640)
    © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin Berthier
  • Louis-François AUBRY
    French 1767-1851
    Portrait of Jérôme Bonaparte, box (Portrait de Jérôme Bonaparte, boîte) Empire period 1804-15
    watercolour and gouache on ivory, gold, diamonds
    2.1 x 6.5 x 9.2 cm (closed)
    Fondation Napoléon, Paris
    Donation Lapeyre (inv. 632)
    © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin Berthier
  • Vincent BERTRAND
    French 1770- after 1818
    Portrait of Baron Denon (Portrait du baron Denon) (late 18th century)
    watercolour and gouache on ivory
    14.3 x 10.8 cm
    Private collection, Paris
    © Fondation Napoléon - Vincent Mercier

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