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The National Gallery of Victoria houses a significant collection of First Nations artworks, including around 4000 Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander works. The scope of the collection ranges from key historical nineteenth and early to mid twentieth century works, as well as contemporary artworks of prints and drawings, photographs, video, fibre art, weaving, ceramics and installations. These works collectively reflect the thoughts and lives of First Nations peoples today. As custodians of the collection, the NGV prioritises the knowledge and opinions of the artists and communities when it comes to decision-making regarding their preservation.

Caring for First Nations collections relies on maintaining a stable environment, monitoring gallery and storage spaces to prevent changes in the materials. The implementation of preventive measures, such as limiting light exposure, keeping temperature and relative humidity within boundaries, and ensuring suitable storage and supports for each work, help to safeguard the collection. Preservation and access are both supported by the digitisation of works, recording the current condition of the materials to monitor change, and providing wider access to important cultural heritage.